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Feldgeister

Feldgeister or Korndamonen are corn spirits from German folklore. Feldgeister often are also wind spirits causing lightning and rain. Numerous Feldgeister are known in German folklore, some shaped as animals, some in human form. The last grain heads and tree fruits are often left at their place as a sacrifice for the agricultural spirits. During harvest season Feldgeister flee deeper into the fields to escape the mowers. With the last cornstalks the corn spirit becomes trapped. Either it is killed by cutting the grain heads, threshing the corn or it is brought to the village in a ceremonial manner, shaped as a corn doll. Direct contact to the Feldgeist causes illness.

                                               

Matariki

In the Māori language, Matariki is both the name of the Pleiades star cluster and also of the season of its first rising in late May or early June. This is a marker of the beginning of the new year. Different people celebrate Matariki at different times; some when Matariki rises in late May or early June while others observe it at the first full moon or first new moon following the rising of Matariki. Matariki is a shortened version of Ngā mata o te ariki o Tāwhirimātea, or the eyes of the god Tāwhirimātea, but it is sometimes incorrectly translated as little eyes. Similar words do occur in most Polynesian languages, deriving from Proto-Polynesian * mataliki, meaning minute, small; the use of the term for the Pleiades cluster is also ancient and has been reconstructed to Eastern Oceanic.

                                               

Metztli

In Aztec mythology, Metztli was a god or goddess of the moon, the night, and farmers. She or they were probably the same deity as Yohaulticetl and Coyolxauhqui and the male moon god Tecciztecatl; like the latter, she feared the Sun because she feared its fire. Also referred to as the lowly god of worms who failed to sacrifice himself to become the Sun, and became the Moon instead, his face darkened by a rabbit.

                                               

Njoku Ji

Njoku Ji is the guardian deity of the yam for the Igbo people of southeastern Nigeria. In parts of Igboland there are still annual rituals in honor of the yam deity known as Ifejioku. In some parts children who were dedicated to the service of the deity were named Njoku. As adults, such children were expected to become prosperous yam farmers which made them into nobility.

                                               

Pales

In ancient Roman religion, Pales was a deity of shepherds, flocks and livestock. Regarded as male by some sources and female by others, Pales can be either singular or plural in Latin, and refers at least once to a pair of deities. Pales festival, called the Parilia, was celebrated on April 21. Cattle were driven through bonfires on this day. Pales and the Parilia were strictly connected to the foundation of Rome which took place on the day of their festival. Marcus Atilius Regulus built a temple to Pales in Rome following his victory over the Salentini in 267 BC. It is generally thought to have been located on the Palatine Hill, but, being a victory monument, it may have been located on the route of the triumphal procession, either on the Campus Martius or the Aventine Hill. According to the Fasti Antiates Maiores, there was a festival for "the two Pales" Palibus duobus on July 7, probably to mark the dedication of this temple.

                                               

Robigalia

The Robigalia was a festival in ancient Roman religion held April 25, named for the god Robigus. Its main ritual was a dog sacrifice to protect grain fields from disease. Games in the form of "major and minor" races were held. The Robigalia was one of several agricultural festivals in April to celebrate and vitalize the growing season, but the darker sacrificial elements of these occasions are also fraught with anxiety about crop failure and the dependence on divine favor to avert it.

                                               

Ta-no-Kami

Ta-no-Kami is a kami who is believed to observe the harvest of rice plants or to bring a good harvest, by Japanese farmers. Ta in Japanese means "rice fields". Ta-no-Kami is also called Noushin or kami of peasants. Ta-no-Kami shares the kami of corn, the kami of water and the kami of defense, especially the kami of agriculture associated with mountain faith and veneration of the dead. Ta-no-Kami in Kagoshima Prefecture and parts of Miyazaki Prefecture is unique; farmers pray before Ta-no-Kami stone statues in their communities.

                                               

Telipinu (mythology)

Telipinu -li-pi-nu ; Hattic: Talipinu or Talapinu, "Exalted Son") was a Hittite god who most likely served as a patron of farming, though he has also been suggested to have been a storm god or an embodiment of crops. He was a son of the weather god Tessub and the solar goddess Arinniti according to their mythology. His wife was the goddess Hatepuna, though he was also paired with Sepuru and Kasḫa at various cultic centres. Telipinu was honored every nine years with an extravagant festival in the autumn at Ḫanḫana and Kasḫa, wherein 1000 sheep and 50 oxen were sacrificed and the symbol of the god, an oak tree, was replanted. He was also invoked formulaically in a daily prayer for King Mursili II under the latters reign. The Telipinu Myth is an ancient Hittite myth about Telipinu, whose disappearance causes all fertility to fail, both plant and animal: Mist seized the windows. Smoke seized the house. On the hearth the logs were stifled. On the altars the gods were stifled. In the fold the sheep were stifled. In the corral the cows were stifled. The sheep refused her lamb. The cow refused her calf. Telipinu went off and took away grain, the fertility of the herds, growth, plenty, and satiety into the wilderness, to the meadow and the moor. Humans and gods perish from hunger. In order to stop the havoc and devastation, the gods seek Telipinu but fail to find him. Hannahanna, the mother goddess, sent a bee to find him; when the bee did, stinging Telipinu and smearing wax on him, the god grew angry and began to wreak destruction on the world. Finally, Kamrusepa, goddess of magic, calmed Telipinu by giving his anger to the Doorkeeper of the Underworld. In other references it is a mortal priest who prays for all of Telipinus anger to be sent to bronze containers in the underworld, from which nothing escapes. In either case, it is difficult to determine anything about the nature of Telipinu from this myth, as myths along the same pattern have also been found featuring the unrelated gods Anzili and Zukki. It has been suggested that Telipinu endured in later mythology as the Greek Telephus and the Caucasian Telepia, but this identification is uncertain. In addition, his name was adopted by several kings, such as the Hittite monarch Telipinu.

                                               

List of tree deities

A tree deity or tree spirit is a nature deity related to a tree. Such deities are present in many cultures. They are usually represented as a young woman, often connected to ancient fertility and tree worship lore. The status of tree deities varies from that of a local fairy, ghost, sprite or nymph, to that of a goddess.

                                               

Vegetation deity

A vegetation deity is a nature deity whose disappearance and reappearance, or life, death and rebirth, embodies the growth cycle of plants. In nature worship, the deity can be a god or goddess with the ability to regenerate itself. A vegetation deity is often a fertility deity. The deity typically undergoes dismemberment, scattering, and reintegration, as narrated in a myth or reenacted by a religious ritual. The cyclical pattern is given theological significance on themes such as immortality, resurrection, and reincarnation. Vegetation myths have structural resemblances to certain creation myths in which parts of a primordial beings body generate aspects of the cosmos, such as the Norse myth of Ymir. In mythography of the 19th and early 20th century, as for example in The Golden Bough of J.G. Frazer, the figure is related to the corn spirit ", "corn" in this sense meaning grain in general. That triviality is giving the concept its tendency to turn into a meaningless generality, as Walter Friedrich Otto remarked of trying to use a "name as futile and yet pretentious as Vegetation deity".

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