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Outline of artificial intelligence

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to artificial intelligence: Artificial intelligence AI – intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is also the name of the scientific field which studies how to create computers and computer software that are capable of intelligent behaviour.

                                               

List of artificial intelligence projects

Synthetic Environment for Analysis and Simulations SEAS, a model of the real world used by Homeland security and the United States Department of Defense that uses simulation and AI to predict and evaluate future events and courses of action. 1 the Road, the first novel marketed by an AI.

                                               

List of programming languages for artificial intelligence

Haskell is also a very good programming language for AI. Lazy evaluation and the list and LogicT monads make it easy to express non-deterministic algorithms, which is often the case. Infinite data structures are great for search trees. The languages features enable a compositional way of expressing the algorithms. The only drawback is that working with graphs is a bit harder at first because of purity. STRIPS is a language for expressing automated planning problem instances. It expresses an initial state, the goal states, and a set of actions. For each action preconditions what must be established before the action is performed and postconditions what is established after the action is performed are specified. R is widely used in new-style artificial intelligence, involving statistical computations, numerical analysis, the use of Bayesian inference, neural networks and in general Machine Learning. In domains like finance, biology, sociology or medicine it is considered as one of the main standard languages. It offers several paradigms of programming like vectorial computation, functional programming and object-oriented programming. It supports deep learning libraries like MXNet, Keras or TensorFlow. AIML meaning "Artificial Intelligence Markup Language" is an XML dialect for use with A.L.I.C.E type chatterbots. Wolfram Language includes a wide range of integrated machine learning capabilities, from highly automated functions like Predict and Classify to functions based on specific methods and diagnostics. The functions work on many types of data, including numerical, categorical, time series, textual, and image. Lisp is a practical mathematical notation for computer programs based on lambda calculus. Linked lists are one of the Lisp languages major data structures, and Lisp source code is itself made up of lists. As a result, Lisp programs can manipulate source code as a data structure, giving rise to the macro systems that allow programmers to create new syntax or even new domain-specific programming languages embedded in Lisp. There are many dialects of Lisp in use today, among which are Common Lisp, Scheme, and Clojure. MATLAB Planner is a hybrid between procedural and logical languages. It gives a procedural interpretation to logical sentences where implications are interpreted with pattern-directed inference. IPL was the first language developed for artificial intelligence. It includes features intended to support programs that could perform general problem solving, such as lists, associations, schemas frames, dynamic memory allocation, data types, recursion, associative retrieval, functions as arguments, generators streams, and cooperative multitasking. Python is widely used for artificial intelligence, with packages for several applications including General AI, Machine Learning, Natural Language Processing and Neural Networks. Julia programming language, e.g. for machine learning, using native or non-native libraries. Prolog is a declarative language where programs are expressed in terms of relations, and execution occurs by running queries over these relations. Prolog is particularly useful for symbolic reasoning, database and language parsing applications. Prolog is widely used in AI today. Perl C++ 2011 onwards POP-11 is a reflective, incrementally compiled programming language with many of the features of an interpreted language. It is the core language of the Poplog programming environment developed originally by the University of Sussex, and recently in the School of Computer Science at the University of Birmingham which hosts the Poplog website, It is often used to introduce symbolic programming techniques to programmers of more conventional languages like Pascal, who find POP syntax more familiar than that of Lisp. One of POP-11s features is that it supports first-class functions. Smalltalk has been used extensively for simulations, neural networks, machine learning and genetic algorithms. It implements the purest and most elegant form of object-oriented programming using message passing.

                                               

1 the Road

1 the Road is an experimental novel composed by artificial intelligence. Emulating Jack Kerouacs On the Road, Ross Goodwin drove from New York to New Orleans in March 2017 with an AI in a laptop hooked up to various sensors, whose output the AI turned into words that were printed on rolls of receipt paper. The novel was published in 2018 by Jean Boite Editions. Goodwin left the text unedited. Although he felt the prose was "choppy", and contained typographical errors, he wanted to present the machine-generated text verbatim, for future study. The story begins: "It was nine seventeen in the morning, and the house was heavy".

                                               

3D reconstruction from multiple images

3D reconstruction from multiple images is the creation of three-dimensional models from a set of images. It is the reverse process of obtaining 2D images from 3D scenes. The essence of an image is a projection from a 3D scene onto a 2D plane, during which process the depth is lost. The 3D point corresponding to a specific image point is constrained to be on the line of sight. From a single image, it is impossible to determine which point on this line corresponds to the image point. If two images are available, then the position of a 3D point can be found as the intersection of the two projection rays. This process is referred to as triangulation. The key for this process is the relations between multiple views which convey the information that corresponding sets of points must contain some structure and that this structure is related to the poses and the calibration of the camera. In recent decades, there is an important demand for 3D content for computer graphics, virtual reality and communication, triggering a change in emphasis for the requirements. Many existing systems for constructing 3D models are built around specialized hardware e.g. stereo rigs resulting in a high cost, which cannot satisfy the requirement of its new applications. This gap stimulates the use of digital imaging facilities like a camera. An early method was proposed by Tomasi and Kanade. They used an affine factorization approach to extract 3D from images sequences. However, the assumption of orthographic projection is a significant limitation of this system.

                                               

20Q

20Q is a computerized game of twenty questions that began as a test in artificial intelligence. It was invented by Robin Burgener in 1988. The game was made handheld by Radica in 2004, but was discontinued in 2011 because Techno Source took the license for 20Q handheld devices. The game 20Q is based on the spoken parlor game known as twenty questions, and is both a website and a handheld device. 20Q asks the player to think of something and will then try to guess what they are thinking of with twenty yes-or-no questions. If it fails to guess in 20 questions, it will ask an additional 5 questions. If it fails to guess even with 25 or 30 questions, the player is declared the winner. Sometimes the first guess of the object can be asked at question 14.

                                               

Vaumpus world

Waumpus world is a simple world use in artificial intelligence for which to represent knowledge and to reason. Vaumpus world was introduced by Genesereth, and is discussed in Russell-Norvig Artificial intelligence book inspired by 1972 video game Hunt the Wumpus.

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