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Adverse food reaction

An adverse food reaction is an adverse response by the body to food or a specific type of food. The most common adverse reaction is a food allergy, which is an adverse immune response to either a specific type or a range of food proteins. However, other adverse responses to food are not allergies. These reactions include responses to food such as food intolerance, pharmacological reactions, and toxin-mediated reactions, as well as physical responses, such as choking.

                                               

Elimination diet

An elimination diet, also known as exclusion diet is a diagnostic procedure used to identify foods that an individual cannot consume without adverse effects. Adverse effects may be due to food allergy, food intolerance, other physiological mechanisms, or a combination of these. Elimination diets typically involve entirely removing a suspected food from the diet for a period of time from two weeks to two months, and waiting to determine whether symptoms resolve during that time period. In rare cases, a health professional may wish to use an elimination diet, also referred to as an oligoantigenic diet, to relieve a patient of symptoms they are experiencing. Common reasons for undertaking an elimination diet include suspected food allergies and suspected food intolerances. An elimination diet might remove one or more common foods, such as eggs or milk, or it might remove one or more minor or non-nutritive substances, such as artificial food colorings. An elimination diet relies on trial and error to identify specific allergies and intolerances. Typically, if symptoms resolve after the removal of a food from the diet, then the food is reintroduced to see whether the symptoms reappear. This challenge–dechallenge–rechallenge approach has been claimed to be particularly useful in cases with intermittent or vague symptoms. The exclusion diet can be a diagnostic tool or method used temporarily to determine whether a patient’s symptoms are food-related. The term elimination diet is also used to describe a "treatment diet", which eliminates certain foods for a patient. Adverse reactions to food can be due to several mechanisms. Correct identification of the type of reaction in an individual is important, as different approaches to management may be required. The area of food allergies and intolerances has been controversial and is currently a topic that is heavily researched. It has been characterised in the past by lack of universal acceptance of definitions, diagnosis and treatment.

                                               

Feingold diet

The Feingold diet is an elimination diet initially devised by Benjamin Feingold following research in the 1970s that appeared to link food additives with hyperactivity; by eliminating these additives and various foods the diet was supposed to alleviate the condition. Popular in its day, the diet has since been referred to as an "outmoded treatment"; there is no good evidence that it is effective, and it is difficult for people to follow.

                                               

Food intolerance

Food intolerance is a detrimental reaction, often delayed, to a food, beverage, food additive, or compound found in foods that produces symptoms in one or more body organs and systems, but generally refers to reactions other than food allergy. Food hypersensitivity is used to refer broadly to both food intolerances and food allergies. Food allergies are immune reactions, typically an IgE reaction caused by the release of histamine but also encompassing non-IgE immune responses. This mechanism causes allergies to typically give immediate reaction a few minutes to a few hours to foods. Food intolerances can be classified according to their mechanism. Intolerance can result from the absence of specific chemicals or enzymes needed to digest a food substance, as in hereditary fructose intolerance. It may be a result of an abnormality in the bodys ability to absorb nutrients, as occurs in fructose malabsorption. Food intolerance reactions can occur to naturally occurring chemicals in foods, as in salicylate sensitivity. Drugs sourced from plants, such as aspirin, can also cause these kinds of reactions.

                                               

Histamine intolerance

Histamine intolerance, sometimes called histaminosis, is an over-accumulation of histamine in the human body. Histamine intolerance is sometimes informally called an allergy; however, the intolerance is technically caused by the gradual accumulation of extracellular histamine due to an imbalance. Roughly 1% of the population has histamine intolerance; of those, 80% are middle-aged.

                                               

Lactose intolerance

Lactose intolerance is when a person has symptoms due to a decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products. Those affected vary in the amount of lactose they can tolerate before symptoms develop. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, gas, and nausea. These symptoms typically start thirty minutes to two hours after eating or drinking milk-based food. Their severity typically depends on the amount a person eats or drinks. Lactose intolerance does not cause damage to the gastrointestinal tract. Lactose intolerance is due to the lack of the enzyme lactase in the small intestines to break lactose down into glucose and galactose. There are four types: primary, secondary, developmental, and congenital. Primary lactose intolerance occurs as the amount of lactase declines as people age. Secondary lactose intolerance is due to injury to the small intestine such as from infection, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or other diseases. Developmental lactose intolerance may occur in premature babies and usually improves over a short period of time. Congenital lactose intolerance is an extremely rare genetic disorder in which little or no lactase is made from birth. Diagnosis may be confirmed if symptoms resolve following eliminating lactose from the diet. Other supporting tests include a hydrogen breath test and a stool acidity test. Other conditions that may produce similar symptoms include irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, and inflammatory bowel disease. Lactose intolerance is different from a milk allergy. Management is typically by decreasing the amount of lactose in the diet, taking lactase supplements, or treating the underlying disease. People are usually able to drink at least one cup of milk per sitting without developing significant symptoms, with greater amounts tolerated if drunk with a meal or throughout the day. The exact number of adults with lactose intolerance is unknown. One estimate puts the average at 65% of the global population. Rates of lactose intolerance vary between racial groups being most common in Africans, Latinos, and Asians and least common in Europeans. Onset is typically in late childhood or early adulthood. The ability to digest lactose into adulthood evolved in several human populations independently, probably as an adaptation to the domestication of dairy animals 10.000 years ago.

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