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Abbamele is a honey-based product from the rural culture of Sardinia. The proper Sardinian name is also not rarely italianized into sapa di miele. According to the traditional methods of preparation, honeycombs are crushed, and the balls of wax containing 20-30% of honey are collected in generic containers. In the days immediately after all the honey extract has settled, the remaining combs containing honey and pollen are dipped in hot water ~ 50 °C, so that the water dissolves all the honey still present in the combs. At this point, any remaining lumps of wax and pollen are broken up through the use of a suitable mixer or by hand. The remaining wax is then pressed further to squeeze out any remaining liquid and is then stored in appropriate containers. The remaining liquid from the previous step is filtered, for example with a linen cloth, at least twice, and then placed in a suitable high-capacity boiler sometimes made of copper where it is boiled and concentrated via decoction. During this concentration process, finely cut lemon or orange rinds are added, and any impurities on the surface of the liquid are removed. The content of the boiler becomes gradually syrupy and must be kept in constant motion to prevent the product from sticking on the bottom and developing a smokey flavour. The liquid also becomes caramelized, becoming dark like molasses but much more complex, with a toasty flavour that has hints of coffee and caramel. When the liquid assumes a consistency similar to that of honey, the heating is interrupted, and the boiler is deposited in a secluded place and allowed to cool before the abbamele is drained. The resulting abbamele has a concentrated honey flavour, and can be eaten with cheese, for example salted or smoked Sardinian ricotta cheese, with fresh fruit, or even with pasta or vegetables.


Acidity regulator

Acidity regulators, or pH control agents, are food additives used to change or maintain pH. They can be organic or mineral acids, bases, neutralizing agents, or buffering agents. Typical agents include the following acids and their sodium salts: sorbic acid, acetic acid, benzoic acid, and propionic acid. Acidity regulators are indicated by their E number, such as E260, or simply listed as "food acid". Acidity regulators differ from acidulants, which are often acidic but are added to confer sour flavors. They are not intended to stabilize the food, although that can be a collateral benefit.


Acidulated water

Acidulated water is water where some sort of acid is added - often lemon juice, lime juice, or vinegar - to prevent cut or skinned fruits or vegetables from browning so as to maintain their appearance. Some vegetables and fruits often placed in acidulated water are apples, avocados, celeriac, potatoes and pears. When the fruit or vegetable is removed from the mixture, it will usually resist browning for at least an hour or two, even though it is being exposed to oxygen. An added benefit of placing items in acidulated water is that the food item acquires a taste of the acid used, which can be very pleasant on the palate. Acidulated water, most often made with the use of vinegar, can be used on an aged, hanging beef carcass butchered to help clean it. The hanging primals / sub-primals can be wiped down with a cloth that has been submerged in the acidulated solution to help remove the "slick" surface that can build up during the aging process.


Acini di pepe

Acini di pepe are a form of pasta. The name is Italian for "seeds of pepper". Acini is the plural of acino whose root is the Latin word acinus. In both Latin and Italian, the word means "grape" or "grape-stones". The "stones of a grape" are, of course, the seeds of the grape. Acini di pepe then translates into "seeds of a pepper". They were and are known as a symbol of fertility, which is why they are used in Italian wedding soup. They are also sometimes referred to as pastina ; however, some pasta makers distinguish pastina as smaller than acini di pepe. The individual pieces usually resemble tiny cylinders about 1mm, or less, in each dimension. Acini di pepe work well in soups and cold salads. Acini di pepe are often used in Italian wedding soup. Frogs eye salad is an American cold salad that combines the pasta with whipped topping, marshmallows, pineapple and mandarin oranges.



Algarrobina is a syrup made from the Black Carob tree. It is popular in Peruvian cuisine and can be used in smoothies, cocktails, or simply in milk. Black Carob is a tree indigenous to Coastal Peru; rich in natural sugars, vitamins and minerals, its a good substitute for chocolate. It can be found in health food stores in the U.S.


Alphabet pasta

Alphabet pasta, also referred to as Alfabeto, is a pasta that has been mechanically cut or pressed into the letters of the alphabet. It is often served in an alphabet soup, sold in a can of condensed broth. Another variation, Alphagetti, consists of letter-shaped pasta in a marinara or spaghetti sauce. It is not clear who invented alphabet soup. As early as 1867, Raleighs Tri-Weekly Standard made reference to the fact that letters of the alphabet were now replacing other shapes of macaroni to give "body to our broth". In 1883, The Chicago Herald Cooking School cookbook provide a recipe for soup calling for a small pasta such as "alphabet pastes of the same material as macaroni stamped in letters". In January 1900 it was on the menu at New York Citys Au Lion dOr. Knorr sold it in Europe as early as the 1910s. In 1908, Wilbur Wright was served alphabet soup in Le Mans, France. Also unclear is whether the soup or the linguistic term for an overabundance of acronyms or abbreviations came first; food historian Janet Clarkson notes that "the first reference I have found so far to the metaphorical alphabet soup also occurs in 1883, in a quotation by the originator of Life magazine, John Ames Mitchell, referring to teaching his son the alphabet soup the ABCs of business." One common American brand of condensed-style alphabet soup is the Campbells brand. This soup, like its competitors, is marketed towards parents for its educational value. A similar product, Alphabetti Spaghetti, was sold by the H. J. Heinz Company for 60 years before being discontinued in 1990. Like Campbells alphabet soup, it contains alphabet pasta canned in tomato sauce. It was later reintroduced by Heinz in 2005.


Echinophora sibthorpiana

Tarhana herb or Turkish pickling herb, Echinophora sibthorpiana or Echinophora tenuifolia L. In North Africa. sibthorpiana Tutin, grass is sometimes used as a spice in tarhana and in pickles. It may also improve the fermentation of tarhana. The main essential oil contained therein, δ-3-carene, methyleugenol and α-phellandrene. Ozcan 2003 Some authors indicate that Hippomarathrum cristatum is "tarhana herb".

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