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Renaissance art
                                     

Renaissance art

Renaissance art is the painting, sculpture and decorative arts of the period of European history, emerging as a distinct style in Italy in about 1400, in parallel with developments which occurred in philosophy, literature, music, science and technology. Renaissance art, perceived as the noblest of ancient traditions, took as its foundation the art of Classical antiquity, but transformed that tradition by absorbing recent developments in the art of Northern Europe and by applying contemporary scientific knowledge. Renaissance art, with Renaissance humanist philosophy, spread throughout Europe, affecting both artists and their patrons with the development of new techniques and new artistic sensibilities. Renaissance art marks the transition of Europe from the medieval period to the Early Modern age.

In many parts of Europe, Early Renaissance art was created in parallel with Late Medieval art. Renaissance art, painting, sculpture, architecture, music, and literature produced during the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries in Europe under the combined influences of an increased awareness of nature, a revival of classical learning, and a more individualistic view of man. Scholars no longer believe that the Renaissance marked an abrupt break with medieval values, as is suggested by the French word renaissance, literally "rebirth". Rather, historical sources suggest that interest in nature, humanistic learning, and individualism were already present in the late medieval period and became dominant in 15th- and 16th-century Italy, concurrently with social and economic changes such as the secularization of daily life, the rise of a rational money-credit economy, and greatly increased social mobility.

The influences upon the development of Renaissance men and women in the early 15th century are those that also affected philosophy, literature, architecture, theology, science, government, and other aspects of society. The following list presents a summary, dealt with more fully in the main articles that are cited above.

  • Classical texts, lost to European scholars for centuries, became available. These included Philosophy, Prose, Poetry, Drama, Science, a thesis on the Arts, and Early Christian Theology.
  • Simultaneously, Europe gained access to advanced mathematics which had its provenance in the works of Islamic scholars.
  • The serendipitous presence within the region of Florence in the early 15th century of certain individuals of artistic genius, most notably Masaccio, Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, Piero della Francesca, Donatello and Michelozzo formed an ethos out of which sprang the great masters of the High Renaissance, as well as supporting and encouraging many lesser artists to achieve work of extraordinary quality.
  • Cosimo de Medici set a new standard for patronage of the arts, not associated with the church or monarchy.
  • A similar heritage of artistic achievement occurred in Venice through the talented Bellini family, their influential in-law Mantegna, Giorgione, Titian and Tintoretto.
  • A revived interest in the Classics brought about the first archaeological study of Roman remains by the architect Brunelleschi and sculptor Donatello. The revival of a style of architecture based on classical precedents inspired a corresponding classicism in painting and sculpture, which manifested itself as early as the 1420s in the paintings of Masaccio and Uccello.
  • The advent of movable type printing in the 15th century meant that ideas could be disseminated easily, and an increasing number of books were written for a broad public.
  • The improvement of oil paint and developments in oil-painting technique by Dutch artists such as Robert Campin, Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden and Hugo van der Goes led to its adoption in Italy from about 1475 and had ultimately lasting effects on painting practices, worldwide.
  • The establishment of the Medici Bank and the subsequent trade it generated brought unprecedented wealth to a single Italian city, Florence.
  • The publication of two treatises by Leone Battista Alberti, De pictura On Painting, 1435, and De re aedificatoria Ten Books on Architecture, 1452.
  • Humanist philosophy meant that mans relationship with humanity, the universe and with God was no longer the exclusive province of the Church.
                                     

1.1. History Proto-Renaissance in Italy, 1280–1400

In Italy in the late 13th and early 14th centuries, the sculpture of Nicola Pisano and his son Giovanni Pisano, working at Pisa, Siena, and Pistoia shows markedly classicising tendencies, probably influenced by the familiarity of these artists with ancient Roman sarcophagi. Their masterpieces are the pulpits of the Baptistery and Cathedral of Pisa.

Contemporary with Giovanni Pisano, the Florentine painter Giotto developed a manner of figurative painting that was unprecedentedly naturalistic, three-dimensional, lifelike and classicist, when compared with that of his contemporaries and teacher Cimabue. Giotto, whose greatest work is the cycle of the Life of Christ at the Arena Chapel in Padua, was seen by the 16th century biographer Giorgio Vasari as "rescuing and restoring art" from the "crude, traditional, Byzantine style" prevalent in Italy in the 13th century.

                                     

1.2. History Early Netherlandish art, 1425–1525

The painters of the Low Countries in this period included Jan van Eyck, his brother Hubert van Eyck, Robert Campin, Hans Memling, Rogier van der Weyden and Hugo van der Goes. Their painting developed partly independently of Early Italian Renaissance painting, and without the influence of a deliberate and conscious striving to revive antiquity.

The style of painting grew directly out of medieval painting in tempera, on panels and illuminated manuscripts, and other forms such as stained glass; the medium of fresco was less common in northern Europe. The medium used was oil paint, which had long been utilised for painting leather ceremonial shields and accoutrements, because it was flexible and relatively durable. The earliest Netherlandish oil paintings are meticulous and detailed like tempera paintings. The material lent itself to the depiction of tonal variations and texture, so facilitating the observation of nature in great detail.

The Netherlandish painters did not approach the creation of a picture through a framework of linear perspective and correct proportion. They maintained a medieval view of hierarchical proportion and religious symbolism, while delighting in a realistic treatment of material elements, both natural and man-made. Jan van Eyck, with his brother Hubert, painted The Altarpiece of the Mystical Lamb. It is probable that Antonello da Messina became familiar with Van Eycks work, while in Naples or Sicily. In 1475, Hugo van der Goes Portinari Altarpiece arrived in Florence where it was to have a profound influence on many painters, most immediately Domenico Ghirlandaio, who painted an altarpiece imitating its elements.

A very significant Netherlandish painter towards the end of the period was Hieronymus Bosch, who employed the type of fanciful forms that were often utilized to decorate borders and letters in illuminated manuscripts, combining plant and animal forms with architectonic ones. When taken from the context of the illumination and peopled with humans, these forms give Boschs paintings a surreal quality which have no parallel in the work of any other Renaissance painter. His masterpiece is the triptych The Garden of Earthly Delights.

                                     

1.3. History Early Renaissance in Italy, 1400–1495

Although both the Pisanos and Giotto had students and followers, the first truly Renaissance artists were not to emerge in Florence until 1401 with the competition to sculpt a set of bronze doors of the Baptistery of Florence Cathedral, which drew entries from seven young sculptors including Brunelleschi, Donatello and the winner, Lorenzo Ghiberti. Brunelleschi, most famous as the architect of the dome of Florence Cathedral and the Church of San Lorenzo, created a number of sculptural works, including a lifesized Crucifix in Santa Maria Novella, renowned for its naturalism. His studies of perspective are thought to have influenced the painter Masaccio. Donatello became renowned as the greatest sculptor of the Early Renaissance, his masterpieces being his Humanist and unusually erotic statue of David, one of the icons of the Florentine republic, and his great monument to Gattamelata, the first large equestrian bronze to be created since Roman times.

The contemporary of Donatello, Masaccio, was the painterly descendant of Giotto and began the Early Renaissance in Italian Painting in 1425, furthering the trend towards solidity of form and naturalism of face and gesture that Giotto had begun a century earlier. From 1425–28, Masaccio completed several panel paintings but is best known for the fresco cycle that he began in the Brancacci Chapel with the older artist Masolino and which had profound influence on later painters, including Michelangelo. Masaccios developments were carried forward in the paintings of Fra Angelico, particularly in his frescos at the Convent of San Marco in Florence.

The treatment of the elements of perspective and light in painting was of particular concern to 15th-century Florentine painters. Uccello was so obsessed with trying to achieve an appearance of perspective that, according to Giorgio Vasari, it disturbed his sleep. His solutions can be seen in his masterpiece set of three paintings, the Battle of San Romano, which is believed to have been completed by 1460. Piero della Francesca made systematic and scientific studies of both light and linear perspective, the results of which can be seen in his fresco cycle of The History of the True Cross in San Francesco, Arezzo.

In Naples, the painter Antonello da Messina began using oil paints for portraits and religious paintings at a date that preceded other Italian painters, possibly about 1450. He carried this technique north and influenced the painters of Venice. One of the most significant painters of Northern Italy was Andrea Mantegna, who decorated the interior of a room, the Camera degli Sposi for his patron Ludovico Gonzaga, setting portraits of the family and court into an illusionistic architectural space.

The end period of the Early Renaissance in Italian art is marked, like its beginning, by a particular commission that drew artists together, this time in cooperation rather than competition. Pope Sixtus IV had rebuilt the Papal Chapel, named the Sistine Chapel in his honour, and commissioned a group of artists, Sandro Botticelli, Pietro Perugino, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Cosimo Rosselli to decorate its wall with fresco cycles depicting the Life of Christ and the Life of Moses. In the sixteen large paintings, the artists, although each working in his individual style, agreed on principles of format, and utilised the techniques of lighting, linear and atmospheric perspective, anatomy, foreshortening and characterisation that had been carried to a high point in the large Florentine studios of Ghiberti, Verrocchio, Ghirlandaio and Perugino.



                                     

1.4. History Early Renaissance in France, 1375–1528

The artists of France, including duchies such as Burgundy were often associated with courts, providing illuminated manuscripts and portraits for the nobility as well as devotional paintings and altarpieces. Among the most famous were the Limbourg brothers, Flemish illuminators and creators of the Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry manuscript illumination. Jean Fouquet, painter of the royal court, visited Italy in 1437 and reflects the influence of Florentine painters such as Paolo Uccello. Although best known for his portraits such as that of Charles VII of France, Fouquet also created illuminations, and is thought to be the inventor of the portrait miniature. There were a number of artists at this date who painted famed altarpieces, that are stylistically quite distinct from both the Italian and the Flemish. These include two enigmatic figures, Enguerrand Quarton to whom is ascribed the Pieta of Villeneuve-les-Avignon, and Jean Hey, otherwise known as "the Master of Moulins" after his most famous work, the Moulins Altarpiece. In these works realism and close observation of the human figure, emotions and lighting are combined with a Medieval formality, which includes gilt backgrounds.

                                     

1.5. History High Renaissance in Italy, 1495–1520

The "universal genius" Leonardo da Vinci was to further perfect the aspects of pictorial art that had preoccupied artists of the Early Renaissance, in a lifetime of studying and meticulously recording his observations of the natural world. His adoption of oil paint as his primary media meant that he could depict light and its effects on the landscape and objects more naturally and with greater dramatic effect than had ever been done before, as demonstrated in the Mona Lisa. His dissection of cadavers carried forward the understanding of skeletal and muscular anatomy, as seen in the unfinished Saint Jerome in the Wilderness. His depiction of human emotion in The Last Supper, completed 1495–1498, set the benchmark for religious painting.

The art of Leonardos younger contemporary Michelangelo took a very different direction. Michelangelo, in neither his painting nor his sculpture demonstrates any interest in the observation of any natural object except the human body. He perfected his technique in depicting it, while in his early twenties, by the creation of the enormous marble statue of David and the group Pietà, in the St Peters Basilica, Rome. He then set about an exploration of the expressive possibilities of the human anatomy. His commission by Pope Julius II to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling resulted in the supreme masterpiece of figurative composition, which was to have profound effect on every subsequent generation of European artists. His later work, The Last Judgement, painted on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel between 1534 and 1541 shows a Mannerist also called Late Renaissance style with generally elongated bodies which took over from the High Renaissance style between 1520 and 1530.

Standing alongside Leonardo and Michelangelo as the third great painter of the High Renaissance was the younger Raphael, who in a short life span painted a great number of lifelike and engaging portraits, including those of Pope Julius II and his successor Pope Leo X, and numerous portrayals of the Madonna and Christ Child, including the Sistine Madonna. His death in 1520 at age 37 is considered by many art historians to be the end of the High Renaissance period, although some individual artists continued working in the High Renaissance style for many years thereafter.

In Northern Spain the High Renaissance is represented by the latter works of Giovanni Bellini, especially religious paintings, which include several large altarpieces of a type known as "Sacred Conversation", which show a group of saints around the enthroned Madonna. His contemporary Giorgione, who died at about the age of 32 in 1510, left a small number of enigmatic works, including The Tempest, the subject of which has remained a matter of speculation. The earliest works of Titian date from the era of the High Renaissance, including a massive altarpiece The Assumption of the Virgin which combines human action and drama with spectacular colour and atmosphere. Titian continued painting in a generally High Renaissance style until near the end of his career in the 1570s, although he increasingly used colour and light over line to define his figures.

                                     

1.6. History German Renaissance art

German Renaissance art falls into the broader category of the Renaissance in Northern Europe, also known as the Northern Renaissance. Renaissance influences began to appear in German art in the 15th century, but this trend was not widespread. Gardners Art Through the Ages identifies Michael Pacher, a painter and sculptor, as the first German artist whose work begins to show Italian Renaissance influences. According to that source, Pachers painting, St. Wolfgang Forces the Devil to Hold His Prayerbook c.1481, is Late Gothic in style, but also shows the influence of the Italian artist, Mantegna. Artisans, such as engravers, became more concerned with aesthetics rather than just perfecting their craft. Germany had master engravers, such as Martin Schongauer, who did metal engravings in the late 1400s. Gardner relates this mastery of the graphic arts to advances in printing which occurred in Germany, and says that metal engraving began to replace the woodcut during the Renaissance. However, some artists, such as Albrecht Durer, continued to do woodcuts. Both Gardner and Russell describe the fine quality of Durers woodcuts, with Russell stating, in The World of Durer, that Durer "elevated them into high works of art."

In the 1500s, Renaissance art in Germany became more common as, according to Gardner, "The art of northern Europe during the sixteenth century is characterized by a sudden awareness of the advances made by the Italian Renaissance and by a desire to assimilate this new style as rapidly as possible." One of the best known practitioners of German Renaissance art was Albrecht Durer 1471–1528. Durers fascination with classical ideas led him to Italy to study art. Both Gardner and Russell recognized the importance of Durers contribution to German art in bringing Italian Renaissance styles and ideas to Germany. Russell calls this "Opening the Gothic windows of German art," while Gardner calls it Durers "life mission." Importantly, as Gardner points out, Durer "was the first northern artist who fully understood the basic aims of the southern Renaissance," although his style did not always reflect that. The same source says that Hans Holbein the Younger 1497–1543 successfully assimilated Italian ideas while also keeping "northern traditions of close realism." This is contrasted against Durers tendency to work in "his own native German style" instead of combining German and Italian styles. Other important artists of the German Renaissance were Grunewald, Albrecht Altdorfer, and Lucas Cranach the Elder.



                                     

2. Britain

Britain was very late to develop a Renaissance style and most artists of the Tudor court were imported foreigners, usually from the Low countries, including Hans Holbein the Younger, who died in England. One exception was the portrait miniature, which artists including Nicholas Hilliard developed into a distinct genre, well before it became popular in the rest of Europe. Renaissance art in Scotland was similarly dependent on imported artists, and largely restricted to the court.

                                     

3. Themes and symbolism

Renaissance artists painted a wide variety of themes. Religious altarpieces, fresco cycles, and small works for private devotion were very popular. For inspiration, painters in both Italy and northern Europe frequently turned to Jacobus de Voragines Golden Legend 1260, a highly influential source book for the lives of saints that had already had a strong influence on Medieval artists. The rebirth of classical antiquity and Renaissance humanism also resulted in many mythological and history paintings. Ovidian stories, for example, were very popular. Decorative ornament, often used in painted architectural elements, was especially influenced by classical Roman motifs.

                                     

4. Techniques

  • Foreshortening – The term foreshortening refers to the artistic effect of shortening lines in a drawing so as to create an illusion of depth.
  • The use of proportion – The first major treatment of the painting as a window into space appeared in the work of Giotto di Bondone, at the beginning of the 14th century. True linear perspective was formalized later, by Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti. In addition to giving a more realistic presentation of art, it moved Renaissance painters into composing more paintings.
  • Sfumato – The term sfumato was coined by Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci and refers to a fine art painting technique of blurring or softening of sharp outlines by subtle and gradual blending of tone into another through the use of thin glazes to give the illusion of depth or three-dimensionality. This stems from the Italian word sfumare meaning to evaporate or to fade out. The Latin origin is fumare, to smoke.
  • Chiaroscuro – The term chiaroscuro refers to the fine art painting modeling effect of using a strong contrast between light and dark to give the illusion of depth or three-dimensionality. This comes from the Italian words meaning light chiaro and dark scuro, a technique which came into wide use in the Baroque period.
                                     

5. Italian artists

  • Domenico Veneziano c. 1410 – May 15, 1461
  • Pietro Negroni c. 1505 – c. 1565
  • Piero della Francesca c. 1415 – 12 October 1492
  • Biagio dAntonio 1446 – 1 June 1516
  • Filippo Lippi c. 1406 – 8 October 1469
  • Titian c. 1488/1490 – 27 August 1576
  • Michelangelo 6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564
  • Andrea del Verrocchio c. 1435 – 1488
  • Leonardo da Vinci 15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519
  • Pisanello c. 1395 – c. 1455
  • Antonello da Messina c. 1430 – February 1479
  • Andrea Mantegna c. 1431 – September 13, 1506
  • Donatello c. 1386 – December 13, 1466
  • Andrea del Castagno c. 1421 – 19 August 1457
  • Masaccio December 21, 1401 – 1428
  • Domenico Ghirlandaio 1449 – 11 January 1494
  • Paolo Uccello 1397 – 10 December 1475
  • Fra Angelico c. 1395 – 1455
  • Carlo Crivelli c. 1435 – c. 1495
  • Marco Cardisco c. 1486 – c. 1542
  • Sandro Botticelli c. 1445 – May 17, 1510
  • Leone Battista Alberti 1404–1472
  • Masolino c. 1383 – c. 1447
  • Alessio Baldovinetti 14 October 1425 – 29 August 1499
  • Benozzo Gozzoli c. 1421 – 1497
  • Luca Signorelli c. 1445 – 16 October 1523
  • Giotto di Bondone 1267–1337
  • Raphael
  • Sofonisba Anguissola c. 1532- November 16, 1625
  • Piero di Cosimo 2 January 1462 – 12 April 1522


                                     

6. Artists of the Low Countries

Main articles: Early Netherlandish painting for 15th-century artists, Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting for 16th-century artists

  • Gerard David c. 1455 – 1523
  • Limbourg brothers
  • Quentin Matsys 1466–1530
  • Hugo van der Goes
  • Dirk Bouts 1415 – 6 May 1475
  • Adriaen Isenbrant c. 1490 – 1551
  • Petrus Christus 1410/1420–1472
  • Jean Bellegambe c. 1470 – 1535
  • Joachim Patinir
  • Rogier van der Weyden Rogier de la Pasture
  • Hieronymus Bosch c. 1450 – 1516
  • Hans Memling c. 1430 – 1494
  • Jan van Eyck 1385?–1440?
  • Robert Campin c. 1380 – 1444
  • Geertgen tot Sint Jans
  • Hubert van Eyck 1366?–1426
  • Jacques Daret
                                     

7. German artists

  • Lucas Cranach the Younger 1515 – 1586
  • Leonhard Beck c. 1480 – 1542
  • Albrecht Durer 1471 – 1528
  • Barthel Bruyn the Elder 1493 – 1555
  • Wilhelm Stetter 1487 – 1552, Alsatian
  • Albrecht Altdorfer c. 1480–1538
  • Jerg Ratgeb c. 1480 – 1526
  • Ambrosius Holbein 1494 – 1519
  • Hans Burgkmair 1473 – 1531
  • Hans Baldung c. 1480 – 1545, Alsatian
  • Lucas Cranach the Elder 1472 – 1553
  • Hans Holbein the Younger c. 1497 – 1543
  • Hans Holbein the Elder c. 1460 – 1524
  • Conrad Faber von Kreuznach c. 1500 – c. 1553
  • Matthias Grunewald c. 1470 – 1528
                                     

8. French artists

  • Barthelemy dEyck c. 1420 – after 1470
  • Jean Clouet 1480–1541
  • Jean Fouquet 1420–1481
  • Nicolas Froment c. 1435 – c. 1486
  • Enguerrand Quarton c. 1410 – c. 1466
  • Simon Marmion c. 1425 – 24/25 December 1489
  • Jean Hey formerly known as the Master of Moulins ca. 1475 – ca. 1505
  • François Clouet c. 1510 – 22 December 1572
                                     

9. Croatian artists

  • Giovanni Dalmata c. 1440 – c. 1514
  • Francesco Laurana c. 1430 – 12? March 1502
  • Giorgio da Sebenico c. 1410 – 10 October 1475
  • Nicholas of Ragusa 1460? – 1517
  • Andrea Alessi 1425–1505
  • Andrea Schiavone c. 1510/1515–1563
  • Niccolo di Giovanni Fiorentino
                                     

10. Works

  • Flagellation of Christ, by Piero della Francesca
  • Equestrian Portrait of Charles V, by Titian
  • Saint Vincent Panels, by Nuno Gonçalves
  • Isenheim Altarpiece, by Matthias Grunewald
  • Sistine Chapel ceiling, by Michelangelo
  • The Descent from the Cross, by Rogier van der Weyden
  • The Portinari Triptych, by Hugo van der Goes
  • The Werl Triptych, by Robert Campin
  • Ghent Altarpiece, by Hubert and Jan van Eyck
  • The School of Athens, by Raphael
  • The Ambassadors, by Hans Holbein the Younger
  • The Last Supper, by Leonardo da Vinci
  • Lamentation of Christ, by Mantegna
  • Spring, by Sandro Botticelli
  • The Arnolfini Portrait, by Jan van Eyck
  • Melencolia I, by Albrecht Durer
  • Melun Diptych, by Jean Fouquet
                                     

11. Major collections

General Collections:
  • National Art Museum of Azerbaijan, Baku
  • Louvre, Paris
  • National Gallery of Art, Washington
  • National Gallery, London
  • Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City
  • Gemaldegalerie, Berlin
Netherlandish:
  • Musee Communal des Beaux-Arts, Bruges, Belgium
  • Groeningemuseum, Bruges, Belgium
  • Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain – for works of Hieronymus Bosch
Italian:
  • Uffizi, Florence
French:
  • Chateau dEcouen National museum of the Renaissance, Ecouen, France

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