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Museology or museum studies is the study of museums. It explores the history of museums and their role in society, as well as the activities they engage in, including curating, preservation, public programming, and education.


Accession number (library science)

In libraries, art galleries, museums and archives, an accession number is a unique identifier assigned to, and achieving initial control of, each acquisition. Assignment of accession numbers typically occurs at the point of accessioning or cataloging. The term is something of a misnomer, because the form accession numbers take is often alpha-numeric. If an item is removed from the collection, its number is usually not reused for new items. In libraries, this numbering system is usually in addition to the library classification number or alphanumeric code and to the ISBN or International Standard Book Number assigned by publishers. Accession numbers are also used in botany, by institutions with living collections like arboreta, botanic gardens, etc., to identify plants or groups of plants that are of the same taxon, are of the same propagule type or treatment, were received from the same source, were received at the same time. Herbaria and other botanic institutions collecting non living material also use accession numbers. An accession number may include the year acquired, sometimes the full date as at the British Museum, and a sequential number separated by a period. In addition, departments or art classifications within the collection or museum may reserve sections of numbers. For example, objects identified by the numbers 11.000 through 11.999 may indicate objects obtained by the museum in 1911; the first 300 numbers might be used to indicate American art, while the next fifty 11.301–350 might be used for African art. In some cases, they also include letters and other punctuation, such as commas, hyphens or slashes. In older institutions, simpler numbering systems are sometimes maintained alongside, or incorporated within, newer systems. Where the objects are unique, institutions normally need to retain the original number in some form as it will have been used in old references that are still of use in scholarship. In particular, collections of manuscripts use the prefix "MS", and many well known manuscripts are known by their old MS numbers, often incorporating a prefix for a particular collection within a library. These collections may be divided by former owners, as with several British Library "closed" collections, or by language, as with Froissart of Louis of Gruuthuse BnF MS Fr. 2643-6, indicating a two volume manuscript in French at the Bibliotheque nationale de France.


African art in Western collections

Between 1890 and 1918, Western colonial expansion in Africa led to the looting of many pieces of sub-Saharan African art, artifacts or natural heritage that were subsequently brought to Europe and displayed. These objects entered the collections of natural history museums, art museums and private collections in Europe and the United States.


American Institute for Conservation

The Foundation for Advancement in Conservation FAIC was incorporated in 1972 to support the charitable, scientific, and educational activities of the AIC. FAIC receives donations and grants to undertake and underwrite efforts that advance the field of conservation, support AIC members in their professional endeavors, and help people care for their collections.


Applied history

Applied history is the effort to apply insights grounded in the study of the past to the challenges of the present, particularly in the area of policy-making. Applied history is closely associated with the field of public history, and the terms today are sometimes used interchangeably, though historically, public history has been a more encompassing term, engaging a broad range of audiences, subjects and methods, while applied history has been more narrowly focused on work associated with the development of domestic and foreign policy.


Art market

The art market is represented by a marketplace of buyers and sellers trading in the commodities, services, and works-of-art commonly associated with the various arts. The art market is also concerned with the production of new art which enters the art market. The art market is an example of one type of marketplace, among many different types of markets which occur in economics. In particular, the art market has many similarities with other marketplaces where buyers and sellers meet, as well as significant distinguishing factors indicative of its differences from other types of markets in economics.