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Barefoot lawyer

A barefoot lawyer is a self-taught legal activist in China. Many barefoot lawyers are peasants who have taught themselves enough law to file civil complaints, engage in litigation, and educate fellow citizens about their rights. The term is a variation of the "barefoot doctor" - farmers with minimal formal training who nonetheless provided essential medical services in rural China during the Mao era. Barefoot lawyers provide free legal services, and in many instances take on controversial or politically sensitive cases - such as tackling corruption by local authorities - that more established legal professionals may be reluctant to pursue. Notable examples of barefoot lawyers include the blind self-taught activist Chen Guangcheng, and Guo Feixiong.


Rural delivery service

Rural delivery service refers to services for the delivery of mail to rural areas. In many countries, rural mail delivery follows different rules and practices from that in urban areas. For example, in some areas rural delivery may require homeowners to travel to a centralized mail delivery depot or a community, mailbox rather than being directly served by a door-to-door mail carrier; and even if direct door-to-door delivery is offered, houses still may even not have their own unique mailing addresses at all, but an entire road instead may be assigned a single common address, such as a rural route number. Examples include Rural Free Delivery in the United States, the rural route system in Canada, and the Rural Mail Box addressing system in Australia. Because of the differences in the handling and delivery of mail in rural areas, rural letter carriers often follow different regulatory standards than urban postal workers; for example, rural postal delivery workers may not be required to wear a uniform and may be allowed to use their own vehicles rather than driving a postal truck. In Canada, rural letter carriers were for many years not even considered employees of Canada Post but private contractors.


Kerosene lamp

A kerosene lamp is a type of lighting device that uses kerosene as a fuel. Kerosene lamps have a wick or mantle as light source, protected by a glass chimney or globe; lamps may be used on a table, or hand-held lanterns may be used for portable lighting. Like oil lamps, they are useful for lighting without electricity, such as in regions without rural electrification, in electrified areas during power outages, at campsites, and on boats. There are three types of kerosene lamp: flat-wick, central-draught, and mantle lamp. Kerosene lanterns meant for portable use have a flat wick and are made in dead-flame, hot-blast, and cold-blast variants. Pressurized kerosene lamps use a gas mantle; these are known as Petromax, Tilley lamps, or Coleman lamps, among other manufacturers. They produce more light per unit of fuel than wick-type lamps, but are more complex and expensive in construction and more complex to operate. A hand-pump pressurizes air, which forces liquid fuel from a reservoir into a gas chamber. Vapor from the chamber burns, heating a mantle to incandescence and also providing heat. Kerosene lamps are widely used for lighting in rural areas of Africa and Asia, where electricity is not distributed or is too costly. Kerosene lamps consume an estimated 77 billion litres of fuel per year, equivalent to 1.3 million barrels of oil per day, comparable to annual U.S. jet-fuel consumption of 76 billion litres per year.


Landline (TV series)

Landline is an Australian national rural issues television program broadcast on ABC. Presented by Pip Courtney since 2012, the program discusses rural issues regarding farming, mining and fisheries from around Australia. Each week the show wraps up with an update on commodity prices for livestock and mining, and detailed national weather rainfall reports. The program premiered in March 1991. The program is also repeated the following Monday at 11:00 am. Landline was the first program that broadcast on ABC2 when the channel was launched at 6:35 am on 7 March 2005. On the newly launched channel, the program is broadcast on Mondays at 6:25 am, 4:00 pm, 7:00 pm and 9:15 pm. Previous presenters include Deborah Knight, Ticky Fullerton, Anne Kruger and Sally Sara.


Old German Baptist Brethren

The Old German Baptist Brethren is a conservative Plain church that emerged from a division among the German Baptist Brethren in 1881 being part of the Old Order Movement. Like the church it emerged from, it has roots both in Anabaptism and in Radical Pietism. It rejects baptism of infants as a biblically valid form of baptism. It is one of several Schwarzenau Brethren groups that trace their roots to 1708, when eight believers founded a new church in Schwarzenau, Germany. The Old German Baptist Brethren church has about 4.000 baptized members.


Pakistani village life

Pakistani village life is the traditional rural life of the people of Pakistan. People in rural Pakistan usually live in houses made of bricks, clay or mud. These typically have two or three rooms which house extended families. Although now they prefer living by making separate home for each family nuclear units but they dont live far away from their relatives, and they are extending their villages by making more homes. Due to geographical and other socioeconomic diversity, different regions have slightly different physical and social layout. For example, in Gongrani, Balochistan, people live in homes built within cliff-side caves that are connected by walkways. Most of the villagers are farmers but other rural occupations include blacksmiths, hairdressers and tailorers, shepherds. Rural social organization in Pakistan is marked by kinship and exchange relations. Socioeconomic status among rural Pakistani villagers is often based upon the ownership of agricultural land, which also may provide social prestige in village cultures. The majority of rural Pakistani inhabitants livelihoods is based upon the rearing of livestock, which also comprises a significant part of Pakistans gross domestic product. Some livestock raised by rural Pakistanis include cattle and goats. The traditional culture of the village is now subject to change due to the effects upon village society due to rural urbanization, and from the introduction of modern technology, such as pumps and tube wells for irrigation. Resistance to social and cultural changes exists among Pakistani village inhabitants, and varying methods of managing these changes have been tried.


Rural area

In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services defines the word rural as encompassing ".all population, housing, and territory not included within an urban area. Whatever is not urban is considered rural." Typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Agricultural areas are commonly rural, as are other types of areas such as forest. Different countries have varying definitions of rural for statistical and administrative purposes.


Rural Workers' Organisations Convention, 1975

Rural Workers Organisations Convention, 1975 is an International Labour Organization Convention. It was established in 1975: Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to organisations of rural workers and their role in economic and social development.


Three Rural Issues

The Three Rural Issues, or San Nong, refers to three issues relating to rural development in mainland China. Specifically, these issues are agriculture, rural areas and farmers. The Three Rural Issues were highlighted by Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao as areas of rural development in China that need work. At the 2006 National Peoples Congress, the Three Rural Issues were especially emphasized throughout Wen Jiabaos speech on the workings of the government in 2005 and the direction of the government for the year 2006. In the rural areas, agricultural reforms had made the peasants better-off until the 1990s when land supply became insufficient and the cost of the means of production was soaring. As a result, the income of the peasants was greatly reduced. Today, the "three problem of peasantry, rural areas and agriculture" are still a major concern of the government.

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