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Multiconfessional countries have a power sharing arrangement between people of different faiths, usually three or more significant confessional groups within the same jurisdiction. Examples of modern countries deemed multiconfessional are Lebanon and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The "National Pact" is a formal agreement altering the 1926 Constitution, which laid the foundation of Lebanon as a confessionalist state. Instead of the minority wielding the most power, political power became more representative.


Open-source religion

Open-source religions employ open-source methods for the sharing, construction, and adaptation of religious belief systems, content, and practice. In comparison to religions utilizing proprietary, authoritarian, hierarchical, and change-resistant structures, open-source religions emphasize sharing in a cultural Commons, participation, self-determination, decentralization, and evolution. They apply principles used in organizing communities developing open-source software for organizing group efforts innovating with human culture. New open-source religions may develop their rituals, praxes, or systems of beliefs through a continuous process of refinement and dialogue among participating practitioners. Organizers and participants often see themselves as part of a more generalized open-source and free-culture movement.



Pakistanism, or Pakistanisation, is a neologism that refers to the continual division of any society along religious lines. In Europe, Alija Izetbegovic, the first President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, began to embrace the "Pakistan model" in the 1960s, alienating Serbs which would use this ideology to attack Bosniaks later on, while in his Islamic Declaration he "designated Pakistan as a model country to be emulated by Muslim revolutionaries worldwide." Some West Africans were inspired by the Indian independence movement. In 1920, educated West Africans formed the National Congress of British West Africa, which modeled its name on the Indian National Congress. According to Ali Mazrui, the facet of the Indian independence movement West Africans found most admirable was the Indian peoples unity during the struggle. In 1936, H. O. Davies said, "Africans should follow India – the only way is for Africans to co-operate and make sacrifices in the struggle for freedom." According to Ali Mazrui, "But the emergence of the Muslim League in India as a serious secessionist movement soon shattered the myth of unity in the Indian model. A new word entered the vocabulary of West African nationalism – the word was pakistanism." Ghanas Kwame Nkrumah and Nigerias Nnamdi Azikiwe became concerned about possible Pakistanization. The Convention Peoples Partys 1954 Election Manifesto contain the following message: "We have seen the tragedy of religious communalism in India and elsewhere. Dont let us give it a chance to take root and flourish in Ghana. Down with Pakistanism!"


Prison religion

Prison religion includes the religious beliefs and practices of prison inmates, usually stemming from or including concepts surrounding their imprisonment and accompanying lifestyle. "Prison Ministry" is a larger concept, including the support of the spiritual and religious needs of prison guards and staff, whose work in an often demanding and brutal environment often creates a special need for pastoral care, similar to the care that is extended to the military, police officers and fire fighters.


Religion and video games

The study of religion and video games is a subfield of digital religion, which the American scholar of communication, Heidi Campbell, defines as "Religion that is constituted in new ways through digital media and cultures.". Video games once struggled for legitimacy as a cultural product, today, however, they are both business and art. Video games increasingly turn to religion not just as ornament but as core elements of their video game design and play. Games involve moral decision, rely on invented religions, and allow users to create and experience virtual religious spaces. As one of the newest forms of entertainment, however, there is often controversy and moral panic when video games engage religion, for instance, in Insomniac Games use of the Manchester Cathedral in Resistance: Fall of Man. Concepts and elements of contemporary and ancient religions appear in video games in various ways: places of worship are a part of the gameplay of real-time strategy games like Age of Empires ; narratively, games sometimes borrow themes from religious traditions like in Mass Effect 2.


Religion in Scouting

Religion in Scouting and Guiding is an aspect of the Scout method that has been practiced differently and given different interpretations over the years. In contrast to the Christian-only Boys Brigade, which started two decades earlier, Robert Baden-Powell founded the Scout movement as a youth organization with boys as Scouts and girls as Guides, which was independent of any single faith or religion, yet still held that spirituality and a belief in a higher power were key to the development of young people. Scouting organizations are free to interpret the method as laid down by the founder. As the modern world has become more secular and as many societies have become more religiously diverse, this has caused misunderstandings and controversies in some of the national member organizations.


Religious identity

Religious identity is a specific type of identity formation. Particularly, it is the sense of group membership to a religion and the importance of this group membership as it pertains to ones self-concept. Religious identity is not necessarily the same as religiousness or religiosity. Although these three terms share a commonality, religiousness and religiosity refer to both the value of religious group membership as well as participation in religious events. Religious identity, on the other hand, refers specifically to religious group membership regardless of religious activity or participation. Similar to other forms of identity formation, such as ethnic and cultural identity, the religious context can generally provide a perspective from which to view the world, opportunities to socialize with a spectrum of individuals from different generations, and a set of basic principles to live out. These foundations can come to shape an individuals identity. Despite the implications that religion has on identity development, the identity formation literature has mainly focused on ethnicity and gender and has largely discounted the role of religion. Nevertheless, an increasing number of studies have begun to include religion as a factor of interest. However, many of these studies use religious identity, religiosity, and religiousness interchangeably or solely focus on religious identity and solely religious participation as separate constructs. Of these types of research studies, researchers have examined the various factors that affect the strength of ones religious identity over time. Factors that have been found to affect levels of religious identity include gender, ethnicity, and generational status. Identity is one of the most used terms in the social sciences and has different senses in different research paradigms. In addition to psychological studies, sociologists and anthropologists also apply the term religious identity and examine its related processes in given social contexts. For example, one important study conducted in the United States after the events of September 11, 2001, explored the meaning-making among American Muslims and how changes in identity ascription what people think about another group of people affected how Muslims sought to represent themselves. Other studies have applied concepts appropriated from race and gender identity theory such as disidentification which undermines essentialist accounts of religious identity - that an individual has a fixed religious identity, independent of pre-existing systems of representation and individuals positioning within them.


Religious intolerance

Religious intolerance is intolerance of anothers religious beliefs or practices or lack thereof. Mere statements which are contrary to ones beliefs do not constitute intolerance. Religious intolerance, rather, occurs when a group specifically refuses to tolerate ones practices, persons or beliefs on religious grounds.


Religious views on smoking

Religious views on smoking vary widely. Indigenous peoples of the Americas have traditionally used tobacco for religious purposes, while Abrahamic and other religions have only been introduced to the practice in recent times due to the European colonization of the Americas in the 16th century.


Tony Blair Faith Foundation

The Tony Blair Faith Foundation was an interfaith charitable foundation established in May 2008 by former British prime minister Tony Blair. Since December 2016 its work has been continued by the Tony Blair Institute for Global Change.

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