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2013 horse meat scandal

The 2013 horse meat scandal was a scandal in parts of Europe in which foods advertised as containing beef were found to contain undeclared or improperly declared horse meat – as much as 100% of the meat content in some cases. A smaller number of products also contained other undeclared meats, such as pork. The issue came to light on 15 January 2013, when it was reported that horse DNA had been discovered in frozen beefburgers sold in several Irish and British supermarkets. The analysis stated that 23 out of 27 samples of beef burgers also contained pig DNA; pork is a taboo food in the Muslim and Jewish communities. While the presence of undeclared meat was not a health issue, the scandal revealed a major breakdown in the traceability of the food supply chain, and the risk that harmful ingredients could have been included as well. Sports horses, for example, could have entered the food supply chain, and with them the veterinary drug phenylbutazone which is banned in food animals. The scandal has since spread to 13 other European countries, and European authorities have decided to find a EU-wide solution. They initiated meat testing of about 4.000 horse meat samples for the veterinary drug.


Bread in culture

Bread has a significance beyond mere nutrition in many cultures in the Western world and Greater Middle East because of its history and contemporary importance. Bread is also significant in Christianity as one of the elements of the Eucharist; see sacramental bread. The word companion comes from Latin com- "with" + panis "bread". The political significance of bread is considerable. In 19th century Britain, the inflated price of bread due to the Corn Laws caused major political and social divisions, and was central to debates over free trade versus protectionism. The Assize of Bread and Ale in the 13th century demonstrated the importance of bread in medieval times by setting heavy punishments for short-changing bakers, and bread appeared in Magna Carta a half-century earlier. Like other foods, choosing the "right" kind of bread is used as a social signal, to let others know, for example, that the person buying expensive bread is financially secure, or the person buying whatever type of bread that the current fashions deem most healthful is a health-conscious consumer. . bread has become an article of food of the first necessity; and properly so, for it constitutes of itself a complete life-sustainer, the gluten, starch, and sugar, which it contains, represents azotised and hydro-carbonated nutrients, and combining the sustaining powers of the animal and vegetable kingdoms in one product. Mrs Beeton 1861 As a simple, cheap, and adaptable type of food, bread is often used as a synecdoche for food in general in some languages and dialects, such as Greek and Punjabi. There are many variations on the basic recipe of bread worldwide, such as bagels, baguettes, biscuits, bocadillo, brioche, chapatis, Challah, lavash, naan, pitas, pizza, pretzels, puris, tortillas, and many others. There are various types of traditional "cheese breads" in many countries, including Brazil, Colombia, Italy, and Russia.


Camera eats first

Camera eats first is the behavior and global phenomenon of people taking photos of their meals with digital or smartphone cameras before they eat, mostly followed by uploading the photos to the social media. The term refers to how people "feed" their cameras first by taking photos of their food before feeding themselves. It derives from professional food photography while the behavior of the "Camera Eats First" is generally for personal use such as keeping photographic food diaries instead of commercial purposes. It can also be referred as online food photography, food porn and photogenic food.


Communal dining

Communal dining is the practice of dining with others. The practice is centered on food and sharing time with the people who come together in order to share the meal and conversation. Communal dining can take place in public establishments like restaurants or in private establishments.


Culinary diplomacy

Culinary diplomacy, also known as gastrodiplomacy, is a type of cultural diplomacy, which itself is a subset of public diplomacy. Its basic premise is that "the easiest way to win hearts and minds is through the stomach". Official government-sponsored culinary diplomacy programs have been established in Thailand, South Korea, Malaysia, Peru, and the United States.


Dunking (biscuit)

To dunk or to dip a biscuit or some other food, usually baked goods, means to submerge it into a drink, especially tea, coffee, or milk. Dunking releases more flavour from confections by dissolving the sugars, while also softening their texture. Dunking can be used to melt chocolate on biscuits to create a richer flavour. Dunking is a popular way of enjoying biscuits in many countries. A popular form of dunking in Australia is the "Tim Tam Slam", also known as tea sucking. The physics of dunking is driven by the porosity of the biscuit and the surface tension of the beverage. A biscuit is porous and, when dunked, capillary action draws the liquid into the interstices between the crumbs. Dunking is first reported with ancient Romans softening their hard unleavened wafers Latin: bis coctum – "twice baked" in wine. Modern day dunking has its roots in naval history when, in the 16th century, biscuits known as "hard tack" were on board Royal Navy ships, which were so hard that the British sailors would dunk them in beer in order to soften them up. The most popular biscuit to dunk in tea in the United Kingdom is McVities chocolate digestive. In the US, Oreos are frequently dunked in milk, while the Dunkin Donuts franchise is named for the practice of dunking doughnuts into coffee. In South Africa and in India, rusks are a popular food for dunking in both tea and coffee. In the Netherlands, stroopwaffels are commonly dunked in tea or coffee, often after having been set on above the hot drink for a few minutes to melt the caramel inside. In Nigeria, bread is commonly dunked in tea or coffee, while Acaraje is dunked in pap. In New Zealand gingernut biscuits are commonly dunked in tea or coffee. Dunking is also used as a slang term for intinction: the Eucharistic practice of partly dipping the consecrated bread, or host, into the consecrated wine, by the officiant before distributing.

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