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Agricultural philosophy

Agricultural philosophy is, roughly and approximately, a discipline devoted to the systematic critique of the philosophical frameworks that are the foundation for decisions regarding agriculture. Many of these views are also used to guide decisions dealing with land use in general. In everyday usage, it can also be defined as the love of, search after, and wisdom associated with agriculture, as one of humanitys founding components of civilization. However, this view is more aptly known as agrarianism. In actuality, agrarianism is only one philosophy or normative framework out of many that people use to guide their decisions regarding agriculture on an everyday basis. The most prevalent of these philosophies will be briefly defined below.

                                               

Agritourism

Agritourism or agrotourism, as it is defined most broadly, involves any agriculturally based operation or activity that brings visitors to a farm or ranch. Agritourism has different definitions in different parts of the world, and sometimes refers specifically to farm stays, as in Italy. Elsewhere, agritourism includes a wide variety of activities, including buying produce direct from a farm stand, navigating a corn maze, slopping hogs, picking fruit, feeding animals, or staying at a bed and breakfast on a farm. Agritourism activities fall within at least one of the five categories of agritourism, and they may span multiple categories. The five categories are: direct-to-consumer sales, agricultural education, hospitality, recreation, and entertainment. Agritourism is a form of niche tourism that is considered a growth industry in many parts of the world, including Australia, Canada, the United States, and the Philippines. Other terms associated with agritourism are "agritainment", "value added products", "farm direct marketing" and "sustainable agriculture".

                                               

Agro-terrorism

Agroterrorism, also known as agriterrorism and agricultural terrorism, is a malicious attempt to disrupt or destroy the agricultural industry and/or food supply system of a population through "the malicious use of plant or animal pathogens to cause devastating disease in the agricultural sectors". It is closely related to the concepts of biological warfare, chemical warfare and entomological warfare, except carried out by non-state parties. A hostile attack, towards an agricultural environment, including infrastructures and processes, in order to significantly damage national and international political interests.

                                               

Corn dolly

Corn dollies or corn mothers are a form of straw work made as part of harvest customs of Europe before mechanization. Before Christianisation, in traditional pagan European culture it was believed that the spirit of the corn in American English, "corn" would be "grain" lived amongst the crop, and that the harvest made it effectively homeless. James Frazer devotes chapters in The Golden Bough to "Corn-Mother and Corn-Maiden in Northern Europe" chs. 45–48 and adduces European folkloric examples collected in great abundance by the folklorist Wilhelm Mannhardt. Among the customs attached to the last sheaf of the harvest were hollow shapes fashioned from the last sheaf of wheat or other cereal crops. The corn spirit would then spend the winter in this home until the "corn dolly" was ploughed into the first furrow of the new season.

                                               

Emblements

In the common law, emblements are annual crops produced by cultivation legally belonging to the tenant with the implied right for its harvest, and are treated as the tenants property. The doctrine chiefly comes into play in the law of landlord and tenant, or in the foreclosure of mortgages and other legal situations that place the rights of another party in contention with those of a farmer who has planted a crop yet to be harvested. The doctrine also applies to the estate of a deceased tenant. In these situations, the doctrine of emblements operates to guarantee the farmers right to reap and carry away the fruits of his labor even if he loses title to the land on which they are grown. The right to emblements became less important in England in 1851, when most of its protections were established under the Landlord and Tenant Act 1851. Still, there are circumstances when the ancient right still holds, and any person entitled to emblements may enter upon the lands after the determination of the tenancy for the purpose of cutting and carrying away the crops. In Scots law, the term is not used, but tenants have the equvalent rights.

                                               

Goldschmidt Thesis

In the sociology of agriculture, the Goldschmidt Thesis is the thesis by Walter Goldschmidt that farm scale and other management characteristics are associated with certain community characteristics. Goldschmidt was a California anthropologist who conducted pioneering rural community research under USDAs Bureau of Agricultural Economics on two California farming communities. His 1944 research showed that largescale, especially industrial, farm structures in one community were associated with adverse community conditions. Smaller-scale, owner-operated farms in the other community, were associated with more vibrant, diverse economies and with higher standards of living. A large body of research has accumulated testing the Goldschmidt Thesis. However, the validity of the thesis that farm structural characteristics dominating an area can produce certain rural community characteristics remains ambiguous. Research results supporting the thesis and other conclusions casting doubt on it have characterized the debate for over 50 years.

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