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Crowd

The crowd is a large group of people that are gathered or considered together. A crowd may be definable through a common purpose or set of emotions, such as at a political rally, a sports event, or during looting, or may simply be made up of many people going about their business in a busy area. The term "the crowd" may sometimes refer to the lower orders of people in general.

                                               

Adolescent cliques

Adolescent cliques are cliques that develop amongst adolescents. In the social sciences, the word clique is used to describe a group of 2 to 12 "who interact with each other more regularly and intensely than others in the same setting". Cliques are distinguished from "crowds" in that their members interact with one another. Crowds, on the other hand, are defined by reputation. Although the word clique or cliquey is often used in day-to-day conversation to describe relational aggression or snarky, gossipy behaviors of groups of socially dominant teenage girls, that is not always accurate. Interacting with cliques is part of normative social development regardless of gender, ethnicity, or popularity. Although cliques are most commonly studied during adolescence, they exist in all age groups.

                                               

Ashraaf

Ashraaf comes from Arabic and is the plural form of Sharif or Shareef, which literally means "noble" or "privileged". In some countries it used as a term to denote descendants of Muhammed. Among South Asian Muslims it used as a term for the Muslim gentry in South Asia, usually claiming Arab or Turkish descent. This group is the equivalent, in some ways, of the European concept of the "gentry" and families/clans within this group have a family name that signify their position - often based on descent from The Prophet, his immediate circle, major Sufi personalities, or from Genghis Khan or other Mongol and Turkish warlords. Some families also have names based on places in or Sufi orders - thus Chishti or Warsi might signify an affiliation/reverence to Moinuddeen Chishti or Nizamuddin Chishti on the one hand or the saint at Dewain Shareef on the other. In the latter case, sometimes, a person will not use the name till they have taken a formal oath of allegiance or been initiated into the order. Also, in some cases, the name might have been originally acquired by one ancestor in one of the last couple of ways and then used as a family name. In Somalia and Djibouti, the term is used to denote a community that is presumed to have been descended from the Prophet Muhammad.

                                               

Cabal

A cabal is a group of people united in some close design, usually to promote their private views or interests in an ideology, state, or other community, often by intrigue and usually unbeknownst to those outside their group. The use of this term usually carries negative connotations of political purpose, conspiracy and secrecy. It can also refer to a secret plot or a clique, or may be used as a verb to form a cabal or to conspire secretly.

                                               

Clique

A clique, in the social sciences, is a group of individuals who interact with one another and share similar interests. Interacting with cliques is part of normative social development regardless of gender, ethnicity or popularity. Although cliques are most commonly studied during adolescence and middle childhood development, they exist in all age groups. They are often bound together by shared social characteristics such as ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Examples of common or stereotypical adolescent cliques include athletes, nerds, and "outsiders". Typically, people in a clique will not have a completely open friend group, and can therefore "ban" members if they do something considered unacceptable, such as talking to someone disliked. Some cliques tend to isolate themselves as a group and view themselves as superior to others, which can be demonstrated through bullying and other antisocial behaviors.

                                               

Crew

A crew is a body or a class of people who work at a common activity, generally in a structured or hierarchical organization. A location in which a crew works is called a crewyard or a workyard. The word has nautical resonances: the tasks involved in operating a ship, particularly a sailing ship, providing numerous specialities within a ships crew, often organised with a chain of command. Traditional nautical usage strongly distinguishes officers from crew, though the two groups combined form the ships company. Members of a crew are often referred to by the title Crewman. Crew also refers to the sport of rowing, where teams row competitively in racing shells.

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