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Architectural historian

According to Secretary of the Interiors Guidelines the minimum professional qualifications in architectural history are a graduate degree in architectural history, art history, historic preservation, or closely related field, with coursework in American architectural history, or a bachelors degree in architectural history, art history, historic preservation or closely related field plus one of the following: Substantial contribution through research and publication to the body of scholarly knowledge in the field of American architectural history. At least two years of full-time experience in research, writing, or teaching in American architectural history or restoration architecture with an academic institution, historical organization or agency, museum, or other professional institution; or

                                               

Archivist

An archivist is an information professional who assesses, collects, organizes, preserves, maintains control over, and provides access to records and archives determined to have long-term value. The records maintained by an archivist can consist of a variety of forms, including letters, diaries, logs, other personal documents, government documents, sound and/or picture recordings, digital files, or other physical objects.

                                               

Artist

An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only. The term is often used in the entertainment business, especially in a business context, for musicians and other performers. "Artiste" is a variant used in English only in this context; this use has become rare. Use of the term to describe writers, for example, is valid, but less common, and mostly restricted to contexts like criticism.

                                               

Critic

A critic is a professional who communicates an assessment and an opinion of various forms of creative works such as art, literature, music, cinema, theatre, fashion, architecture, and food. Critics may also take as their subject social or government policy. Critical judgments, whether derived from critical thinking or not, weigh up a range of factors, including an assessment of the extent to which the item under review achieves its purpose and its creators intention and a knowledge of its context. They may also include a positive or negative personal response. Characteristics of a good critic are articulateness, preferably having the ability to use language with a high level of appeal and skill. Sympathy, sensitivity and insight are important too. Form, style and medium are all considered by the critic. In architecture and food criticism, the items function, value and cost may be added components. Critics are publicly accepted and, to a significant degree, followed because of the quality of their assessments or their reputation. Influential critics of art, music, theatre and architecture often present their arguments in complete books. One very famous example is John Ruskins Seven Lamps of Architecture and The Stones of Venice. Critics may base their assessment on a range of theoretical positions. For instance, they may take a Feminist or Freudian perspective. Unlike other individuals who may editorialize on subjects via websites or letters written to publications, professional critics are paid to produce their assessment and opinions for print, radio, magazine, television, or Internet companies. When their personal opinion outweighs considered judgment, people who give opinions, whether on current events, public affairs, sports, media or art are often referred to as "pundits" instead of critics. Critics are themselves subject to competing critics, since the final critical judgment always entails subjectivity. An established critic can play a powerful role as a public arbiter of taste or opinion. Also, critics or a coordinated group of critics, may award symbols of recognition.

                                               

Hispanist

A Hispanist is a scholar specializing in Hispanic studies, that is Spanish language, literature, linguistics, history, or civilization by foreigners. It was used in an article by Miguel de Unamuno in 1908 referring to el hispanista italiano Farinelli, and was discussed at length for the U.S. by Hispanist Richard L. Kagan of Johns Hopkins University. The work carried out by Hispanists includes translations of literature and they may specialize in certain genres, authors or historical periods of the Iberian Peninsula and Hispanic America.

                                               

Historian

A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory. Some historians are recognized by publications or training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere.

                                               

Language program director

A Language Program Director is a usually senior academic position in United States universities. In some institutions a LPD can also be referred to as a Language Program Coordinator, while in others the LPD has a hierarchically higher position than an LPC, the latter coordinating just one course level. LPDs usually coordinate all levels of instruction of undergraduate language programs, as well as develop policy related to program administration. They are also responsible for marketing, student recruitment, human resources and budgetary matters. Unlike administrators of other academic units, language program directors are often mandated to generate significant revenue for the institutions they work for. Most LPDs are not on a tenure-track because traditionally linguistic studies have been considered by Departments of Foreign Languages and Literatures as less important than literary studies. According to a recent MLA report, this is a trend that should be reversed. In the past LPD positions were generally filled by people - usually women - with degrees in literature and no training in second language acquisition or applied linguistics. This has resulted in a lack of innovation in US language programs. Recently, however, more and more universities are looking for new program directors with specific training in applied linguistics., and are offering their LPDs tenure-track positions. A useful source of information for LPDs is the American Association of University Supervisors and Coordinators AAUSC

                                               

Philosopher

A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek, φιλόσοφος, meaning "lover of wisdom". The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras. In the classical sense, a philosopher was someone who lived according to a certain way of life, focusing on resolving existential questions about the human condition, and not someone who discourses upon theories or comments upon authors. Typically, these particular brands of philosophy are Hellenistic ones and those who most arduously commit themselves to this lifestyle may be considered philosophers. A philosopher is one who challenges what is thought to be common sense, doesnt know when to stop asking questions, and reexamines the old ways of thought. In a modern sense, a philosopher is an intellectual who has contributed in one or more branches of philosophy, such as aesthetics, ethics, epistemology, logic, metaphysics, social theory, and political philosophy. A philosopher may also be one who worked in the humanities or other sciences which have since split from philosophy proper over the centuries, such as the arts, history, economics, sociology, psychology, linguistics, anthropology, theology, and politics.