Blog page 553




                                               

Framsticks

Framsticks is a 3D freeware Artificial Life simulator. Organisms consisting of physical structures and control structures evolve over time against a users predefined fitness landscape, or spontaneously coevolve in a complex environment. Evolution ...

                                               

Gray goo

Gray goo is a hypothetical global catastrophic scenario involving molecular nanotechnology in which out-of-control self-replicating machines consume all biomass on Earth while building more of themselves, a scenario that has been called ecophagy. ...

                                               

History of artificial life

The idea of human artifacts being given life has fascinated humankind for as long as people have been recording their myths and stories. Whether Pygmalion or Frankenstein, humanity has been fascinated with the idea of artificial life.

                                               

Langton's ant

Langtons ant is a two-dimensional universal Turing machine with a very simple set of rules but complex emergent behavior. It was invented by Chris Langton in 1986 and runs on a square lattice of black and white cells. The universality of Langtons ...

                                               

Langton's loops

Langtons loops are a particular "species" of artificial life in a cellular automaton created in 1984 by Christopher Langton. They consist of a loop of cells containing genetic information, which flows continuously around the loop and out along an ...

                                               

MASON (Java)

MASON is developed at George Mason Universitys Evolutionary Computation Laboratory in conjunction with the GMU Center for Social Complexity. First released in 2003, the environment continues to be maintained and kept up to date. The name, as well ...

                                               

Mycoplasma laboratorium

Mycoplasma laboratorium or Synthia refers to a synthetic species of bacterium. The project to build the new bacterium has evolved since its inception. Initially the goal was to identify a minimal set of genes that are required to sustain life fro ...

                                               

Pacrat

Pacrat is the name of a software agent designed to simulate basic mammalian responses to the environment, as proposed by M. Johnson and R. Scanlon in a 1987 paper titled "Experiences with a Feeling-Thinking Machine". According to Myles Brandon Bo ...

                                               

Polyworld

Polyworld is a cross-platform program written by Larry Yaeger to evolve Artificial Intelligence through natural selection and evolutionary algorithms. It uses the Qt graphics toolkit and OpenGL to display a graphical environment in which a popula ...

                                               

Santa Claus machine

A Santa Claus machine, named after the folkloric Santa Claus, is a hypothetical machine that is capable of creating any required object or structure out of any given material. It is most often referenced by futurists and science fiction writers w ...

                                               

Self-replicating machine

A self-replicating machine is a type of autonomous robot that is capable of reproducing itself autonomously using raw materials found in the environment, thus exhibiting self-replication in a way analogous to that found in nature. The concept of ...

                                               

Self-replicating spacecraft

The idea of self-replicating spacecraft has been applied – in theory – to several distinct "tasks". The particular variant of this idea applied to the idea of space exploration is known as a von Neumann probe, after being conceived by mathematici ...

                                               

Sugarscape

Sugarscape is a model for artificially intelligent agent-based social simulation following some or all rules presented by Joshua M. Epstein & Robert Axtell in their book Growing Artificial Societies.

                                               

Synthetic mycoides

Synthetic mycoides refers to an artificial life form created by Craig Venter at the J Craig Venter Institute in May 2010. A synthetic genome was transferred into an empty cell to form the bacterium, which was capable of self replication and funct ...

                                               

Tierra (computer simulation)

Tierra is a computer simulation developed by ecologist Thomas S. Ray in the early 1990s in which computer programs compete for time time) and space. In this context, the computer programs in Tierra are considered to be evolvable and can mutate, s ...

                                               

Turmite

In computer science, a turmite is a Turing machine which has an orientation as well as a current state and a "tape" that consists of an infinite two-dimensional grid of cells. The terms ant and vant are also used. Langtons ant is a well-known typ ...

                                               

Unnatural Selection (video game)

In the game, the player breeds mutant animals to fight battles. The game has two phases, the first is the breeding phase in which the player uses various objects and methods etc. to breed the animals which will fight future battles. The second is ...

                                               

Von Neumann universal constructor

John von Neumanns universal constructor is a self-replicating machine in a cellular automata environment. It was designed in the 1940s, without the use of a computer. The fundamental details of the machine were published in von Neumanns book Theo ...

                                               

Weasel program

The weasel program or Dawkins weasel is a thought experiment and a variety of computer simulations illustrating it. Their aim is to demonstrate that the process that drives evolutionary systems - random variation combined with non-random cumulati ...

                                               

Biomedical cybernetics

Biomedical cybernetics investigates signal processing, decision making and control structures in living organisms. Applications of this research field are in biology, ecology and health sciences.

                                               

Autowave

Autowaves are self-supporting non-linear waves in active media. The term is generally used in processes where the waves carry relatively low energy, which is necessary for synchronization or switching the active medium.

                                               

Autowave reverberator

In the theory of autowave phenomena an autowave reverberator is an autowave vortex in a two-dimensional active medium. A reverberator appears a result of a rupture in the front of a plane autowave. Such a rupture may occur, for example, via colli ...

                                               

Hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis

The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis is part of the neuroendocrine system responsible for the regulation of metabolism and also responds to stress. As its name suggests, it depends upon the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the thyroid gl ...

                                               

Medical cybernetics

Medical cybernetics is a branch of cybernetics which has been heavily affected by the development of the computer, which applies the concepts of cybernetics to medical research and practice. It covers an emerging working program for the applicati ...

                                               

SimThyr

SimThyr is a free continuous dynamic simulation program for the pituitary-thyroid feedback control system. The open-source program is based on a nonlinear model of thyroid homeostasis. In addition to simulations in the time domain the software su ...

                                               

Birth

Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring, also referred to in technical contexts as parturition. In mammals, the process is initiated by hormones which cause the muscular walls of the uterus to contract, expelling the fe ...

                                               

Birth certificate

A birth certificate is a vital record that documents the birth of a child. The term "birth certificate" can refer to either the original document certifying the circumstances of the birth or to a certified copy of or representation of the ensuing ...

                                               

List of countries by number of births

The following list sorts countries by the total projected number of births. The list is sourced from the United Nations World Population Prospects. Figures are from the 2017 revision of the United Nations World Population Prospects report, for th ...

                                               

Initial acquisition of microbiota

The initial acquisition of microbiota is the formation of an organisms microbiota immediately before and after birth. The microbiota are all the microorganisms including bacteria, archaea and fungi that colonize the organism. The microbiome is an ...

                                               

Bidirectional traffic

In transportation infrastructure, a bidirectional traffic system divides travelers into two streams of traffic that flow in opposite directions. In the design and construction of tunnels, bidirectional traffic can markedly affect ventilation cons ...

                                               

Chemical chirality in popular culture

Although little was known about chemical chirality in the time of Lewis Carroll, his work Through the Looking-glass contains a prescient reference to the differing biological activities of enantiomeric drugs: "Perhaps Looking-glass milk isnt good ...

                                               

Chiral polytope

In mathematics, there are two competing definitions for a chiral polytope. One is that it is a polytope that is chiral, meaning that it does not have mirror symmetry. By this definition, a polytope that lacks any symmetry at all would be an examp ...

                                               

Chirality (chemistry)

In chemistry, a molecule or ion is called chiral if it cannot be superposed on its mirror image by any combination of rotations and translations. This geometric property is called chirality. The terms are derived from Ancient Greek χείρ, meaning ...

                                               

Chirality (mathematics)

In geometry, a figure is chiral if it is not identical to its mirror image, or, more precisely, if it cannot be mapped to its mirror image by rotations and translations alone. An object that is not chiral is said to be achiral. In 3 dimensions, n ...

                                               

Chirality (physics)

A chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image. The spin of a particle may be used to define a handedness, or helicity, for that particle, which, in the case of a massless particle, is the same as chirality. A symmetry trans ...

                                               

Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter

Harold Scott MacDonald Donald Coxeter, was a British-born Canadian geometer. Coxeter is regarded as one of the greatest geometers of the 20th century. He was born in London, received his BA and PhD from Cambridge, but lived in Canada from age 29. ...

                                               

Edinburgh Handedness Inventory

The Edinburgh Handedness Inventory is a measurement scale used to assess the dominance of a persons right or left hand in everyday activities, sometimes referred to as laterality. The inventory can be used by an observer assessing the person, or ...

                                               

Enantiopure drug

An enantiopure drug is a pharmaceutical that is available in one specific enantiomeric form. Most biological molecules are present in only one of many chiral forms, so different enantiomers of a chiral drug molecule bind differently to target rec ...

                                               

Footedness

Footedness is the natural preference of ones left or right foot for various purposes. It is the foot equivalent of handedness. While purposes vary, such as applying the greatest force in a certain foot to complete the action of kick as opposed to ...

                                               

Handedness

In human biology, handedness is a better, faster, or more precise performance or individual preference for use of a hand, known as the dominant hand ; the incapable, less capable or less preferred hand is called the non-dominant hand. Right-hande ...

                                               

Inherent chirality

In chemistry, inherent chirality is a property of asymmetry in molecules arising, not from a stereogenic or chiral center, but from a twisting of the molecule in 3-D space. The term was first coined by Volker Boehmer in a 1994 review, to describe ...

                                               

Laterality

The term laterality refers to the preference most humans show for one side of their body over the other. Examples include left-handedness/right-handedness and left/right-footedness; it may also refer to the primary use of the left or right hemisp ...

                                               

Left- and right-hand traffic

Left-hand traffic and right-hand traffic are the practice, in bidirectional traffic, of keeping to the left side or to the right side of the road, respectively. A fundamental element to traffic flow, it is sometimes referred to as the rule of the ...

                                               

Mefloquine

Mefloquine, sold under the brand names Lariam among others, is a medication used to prevent or treat malaria. When used for prevention it is typically started before potential exposure and continued for several weeks after potential exposure. It ...

                                               

Metachirality

Metachirality is a stronger form of chirality. It applies to objects or systems that are chiral and where, in addition, their mirror image has a symmetry group that differs from the symmetry group of the original object or system. Many familiar c ...

                                               

Mirror image

A mirror image is a reflected duplication of an object that appears almost identical, but is reversed in the direction perpendicular to the mirror surface. As an optical effect it results from reflection off of substances such as a mirror or wate ...

                                               

Mirror life

Mirror life is a hypothetical form of life with mirror-reflected molecular building blocks. The possibility of mirror life was first discussed by Louis Pasteur. Although this alternative life form has not been discovered in nature, efforts to bui ...

                                               

Planar chirality

Planar chirality is the special case of chirality for two dimensions. Most fundamentally, planar chirality is a mathematical term, finding use in chemistry, physics and related physical sciences, for example, in astronomy, optics and metamaterial ...

                                               

Racemic acid

Racemic acid is an old name for an optically inactive or racemic form of tartaric acid. It is an equal mixture of two mirror-image isomers, optically active in opposing directions. The naturally occurring form of the acid is the right-handed. Tar ...

                                               

Sinistral and dextral

Sinistral and dextral, in some scientific fields, are the two types of chirality or relative direction. The terms are derived from the Latin words for "left" and "right". Other disciplines use different terms or simply use left and right. Relativ ...