Blog page 524




                                               

Catachresis

Catachresis, originally meaning a semantic misuse or error - e.g., using "militate" for "mitigate", "chronic" for "severe", "travesty" for "tragedy", "anachronism" for "anomaly", "alibi" for "excuse", etc. - is also the name given to many differe ...

                                               

Challenge (rhetoric)

A challenge can serve as a dare or an exhortation, motivating a person or persons by not". A challenge can thus become a tool of rhetoric: a rhetorical challenge.

                                               

Chiastic structure

Chiastic structure, or chiastic pattern, is a literary technique in narrative motifs and other textual passages. An example of chiastic structure would be two ideas, A and B, together with variants A and B, being presented as A,B,B,A. Chiastic st ...

                                               

Chironomia

Chironomia is the art of using gesticulations or hand gestures to good effect in traditional rhetoric or oratory. Effective use of the hands, with or without the use of the voice, is a practice of great antiquity, which was developed and systemat ...

                                               

Chreia

A chreia was a brief, useful χρεία means "use" anecdote about a particular character. That is, a chreia was shorter than a narration - often as short as a single sentence - but unlike a maxim, it was attributed to a character. Usually it conforme ...

                                               

Circumlocution

Circumlocution is a phrase that circles around a specific idea with multiple words rather than directly evoking it with fewer and apter words. It is sometimes necessary in communication, but it can also be undesirable. Roundabout speech is the us ...

                                               

Clausula (rhetoric)

In Roman rhetoric, a clausula /klɔːzi̯ʊlə/ was a rhythmic figure used to add finesse and finality to the end of a sentence or phrase. There was a large range of popular clausulae. Most well known is the classically Ciceronian esse videātur type. ...

                                               

Climax (rhetoric)

In rhetoric, a climax is a figure of speech in which words, phrases, or clauses are arranged in order of increasing importance. In its use with clauses, it is also sometimes known as auxesis.

                                               

Cluster criticism

Cluster criticism is a method of rhetorical criticism in which a critic examines the structural relations and associative meanings between certain main ideas, concepts, or subjects present in a text.

                                               

Cognitive rhetoric

Cognitive rhetoric refers to an approach to rhetoric, composition, and pedagogy as well as a method for language and literary studies drawing from, or contributing to, cognitive science.

                                               

Collective noun

In linguistics, a collective noun is a collection of things taken as a whole. Most collective nouns in everyday speech are not specific to one kind of thing, such as the word "group", which can be applied to people or dogs or other things. Some c ...

                                               

Colon (rhetoric)

A colon is a rhetorical figure consisting of a clause which is grammatically, but not logically, complete. In Latin, it is called a membrum or membrum orationis. Sentences consisting of two cola are called dicola ; those with three are tricola. T ...

                                               

Comma (rhetoric)

In Ancient Greek rhetoric, a comma is a short clause, something less than a colon. In the system of Aristophanes of Byzantium, commata were separated by middle interpuncts. In antiquity, a comma was defined as a combination of words that has no m ...

                                               

Commentarii in Somnium Scipionis

Commentary on Ciceros Dream of Scipio is a philosophical treatise of Macrobius based on the famous dream narrated in On the republic of Cicero, in which Scipion the African the Old appears to his adoptive grandson, Scipion Emiliano, and reveals h ...

                                               

Common sense

Common sense is sound practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge that is shared by nearly all people. The first type of common sense, good sense, can be described as "the knack for seeing ...

                                               

The Common Topics

Edward P.J. Corbett and Robert J. Connors expanded the list in their 1971 book Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student to include: description example genus / division / species synonyms Definition etymology difference similarity degree Compari ...

                                               

Commonwealth Club Address

The Commonwealth Club Address was a speech made by New York Governor and Democratic presidential nominee Franklin Delano Roosevelt in San Francisco on his 1932 presidential campaign. Roosevelt said the era of growth and unrestricted entrepreneurs ...

                                               

Comparatio

Comparatio in Classical rhetoric is strategy that uses comparison to persuade people. Comparatio relies upon peoples knowledge or beliefs about a phenomenon, and then discursively "links" that phenomenon to a different phenomenon about which the ...

                                               

Composition studies

Composition studies is the professional field of writing, research, and instruction, focusing especially on writing at the college level in the United States. The flagship national organization for this field is the Conference on College Composit ...

                                               

Consolatio

See also the Catharist Consolamentum The Consolatio or consolatory oration is a type of ceremonial oratory, typically used rhetorically to comfort mourners at funerals. It was one of the most popular classical rhetoric topics, and received new im ...

                                               

Constitutive rhetoric

Constitutive rhetoric is a theory of discourse devised by James Boyd White about the capacity of language or symbols to create a collective identity for an audience, especially by means of condensation symbols, literature, and narratives. Such di ...

                                               

Contrast (literary)

In literature, an author uses contrast when he or she describes the difference between two or more entities. For example, in the first four lines of William Shakespeares Sonnet 130, Shakespeare contrasts a mistress to the sun, coral, snow, and wi ...

                                               

Conversion narrative

Broadly speaking, a conversion narrative is a narrative that relates the operation of conversion, usually religious. As a specific aspect of American literary and religious history, the conversion narrative was an important facet of Puritan sacre ...

                                               

Covariational conditional

Covariational Conditional refers to the most commonly used "the Xer, the Yer" structure in English, for example: "The sooner, the better." "The more I think about it, the less I understand." The structure is composed of two variables: an independ ...

                                               

Dead cat strategy

The dead cat strategy, or deadcatting, refers to the introduction of a dramatic, shocking, or sensationalist topic to divert discourse away from a more damaging topic. The strategy, or at least the "dead cat" metaphor to describe it, is particula ...

                                               

Declamation

Declamation is an artistic form of public speaking. It is a dramatic oration designed to express through articulation, emphasis and gesture the full sense of the text being conveyed.

                                               

Decorum

Decorum was a principle of classical rhetoric, poetry and theatrical theory that was about the fitness or otherwise of a style to a theatrical subject. The concept of decorum is also applied to prescribed limits of appropriate social behavior wit ...

                                               

Deliberative rhetoric

Deliberative rhetoric is a rhetorical device that juxtaposes potential future outcomes to communicate support or opposition for a given action or policy. In deliberative rhetoric, an argument is made using examples from the past to predict future ...

                                               

Diacope

Diacope is a rhetorical term meaning repetition of a word or phrase with one or two intervening words. It derives from a Greek word meaning "cut in two".

                                               

Dialectic

Dialectic or dialectics, also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments. Dialectic resembles d ...

                                               

Dialogus de oratoribus

The Dialogus de oratoribus is a short work attributed to Tacitus, in dialogue form, on the art of rhetoric. Its date of composition is unknown, though its dedication to Lucius Fabius Justus places its publication around 102 AD.

                                               

Dilemma

A dilemma is a problem offering two possibilities, neither of which is unambiguously acceptable or preferable. The possibilities are termed the horns of the dilemma, a cliched usage, but distinguishing the dilemma from other kinds of predicament ...

                                               

Dioscorus of Aphrodito

Flavius Dioscorus lived during the 6th century A.D. in the village of Aphrodito, Egypt, and therefore is called by modern scholars Dioscorus of Aphrodito. Although he was an Egyptian, he composed poetry in Greek, the cultural language of the Byza ...

                                               

Dispositio

Dispositio is the system used for the organization of arguments in Western classical rhetoric. The word is Latin, and can be translated as "organization" or "arrangement". It is the second of five canons of classical rhetoric that concern the cra ...

                                               

Dramatistic pentad

The dramatistic pentad forms the core structure of dramatism, a method for examining motivations that the renowned literary critic Kenneth Burke developed. Dramatism recommends the use of a metalinguistic approach to stories about human action th ...

                                               

Ecphonesis

Ecphonesis is an emotional, exclamatory phrase used in poetry, drama, or song. It is a rhetorical device that originated in ancient literature. A Latin example is "O tempora! O mores!". A modern example is "Young man!" from the song YMCA by the V ...

                                               

Elocutio

Elocutio is the term for the mastery of stylistic elements in Western classical rhetoric and comes from the Latin loqui, "to speak". Although the word elocution is now associated more with eloquent speaking, it connoted "style" for the classical ...

                                               

Elocution

Elocution is the study of formal speaking in pronunciation, grammar, style, and tone as well as the idea and practice of effective speech and its forms. It stems from the idea that while communication is symbolic, sounds are final and compelling.

                                               

Eloquentia Perfecta

Eloquentia Perfecta, a tradition of the Society of Jesus, is a value of Jesuit rhetoric that revolves around cultivating a person as a whole, as one learns to speak and write for the common good. Eloquentia Perfecta is a Latin phrase which means ...

                                               

Enantiosis

Enantiosis, synoeciosis or discordia concors is a rhetorical device in which opposites are juxtaposed so that the contrast between them is striking. Examples include the famous maxim of Augustus, festina lente, and the following passage from Paul ...

                                               

Enthymeme

An enthymeme is a rhetorical syllogism used in oratorical practice. Originally theorized by Aristotle, there are four types of enthymeme, at least two of which are described in Aristotles work. Aristotle referred to the enthymeme as "the body of ...

                                               

Epanalepsis

Epanalepsis is the repetition of the initial part of a clause or sentence at the end of that same clause or sentence. The beginning and the end of a sentence are two positions of emphasis, so special attention is placed on the phrase by repeating ...

                                               

Epideictic

The epideictic oratory, also called ceremonial oratory, or praise-and-blame rhetoric, is one of the three branches, or "species", of rhetoric as outlined in Aristotles Rhetoric, to be used to praise or blame during ceremonies.

                                               

Eristic

In philosophy and rhetoric, eristic refers to argument that aims to successfully dispute anothers argument, rather than searching for truth. According to T.H. Irwin, "It is characteristic of the eristic to think of some arguments as a way of defe ...

                                               

Essentially contested concept

In a paper delivered to the Aristotelian Society on 12 March 1956, Walter Bryce Gallie introduced the term essentially contested concept to facilitate an understanding of the different applications or interpretations of the sorts of abstract, qua ...

                                               

Ethos

Ethos is a Greek word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology. The Greeks also used this word to refer to the power of music to influence emotions, behaviors, a ...

                                               

Eunoia

In rhetoric, eunoia is the goodwill a speaker cultivates between themself and their audience, a condition of receptivity. In Book VIII of the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle uses the term to refer to the kind and benevolent feelings of goodwill a s ...

                                               

Euphuism

Euphuism is a peculiar mannered style of English prose. It takes its name from a prose romance by John Lyly. It consists of a preciously ornate and sophisticated style, employing a deliberate excess of literary devices such as antitheses, alliter ...

                                               

Exophora

In pragmatics, exophora is reference to something extralinguistic, i.e. not in the same text, and contrasts with endophora. Exophora can be deictic, in which special words or grammatical markings are used to make reference to something in the con ...

                                               

Facilitas

The art of facilitas was most notably taught by Quintilian, the Roman rhetorician, in the latter part of the first century A.D. c. 35 – c. 100. In Quintilians Institutio Oratoria, Quintilian summarizes the Roman educational system. In this system ...