Blog page 444




                                               

Bench (law)

Bench used in a legal context can have several meanings. First, it can simply indicate the location in a courtroom where a judge sits. Second, the term bench is a metonym used to describe members of the judiciary collectively, or the judges of a ...

                                               

Call to the bar

The call to the bar is a legal term of art in most common law jurisdictions where persons must be qualified to be allowed to argue in court on behalf of another party and are then said to have been "called to the bar" or to have received a "call ...

                                               

Case stated

In law, a case stated is a procedure by which a court or tribunal can ask another court for its opinion on a point of law. There are two kinds: consultative case stated and appeal by way of case stated. A consultative case stated is made at the d ...

                                               

Chambers (law)

In law, a chambers is a room or office used by barristers or a judge. A barristers chambers or barristers chambers are the rooms used by a barrister or a group of barristers. A judges chambers, on the other hand, is the office of a judge, where t ...

                                               

Close case

In the law, a close case is generally defined as a ruling that could conceivably be decided in more than one way. Various scholars have attempted to articulate criteria for identifying close cases, and commentators have observed that reliance upo ...

                                               

Committal procedure

In law, a committal procedure is the process by which a defendant is charged with a serious offence under the criminal justice systems of all common law jurisdictions except the United States. The committal procedure, sometimes known as a prelimi ...

                                               

County court

A county court is a court based in or with a jurisdiction covering one or more counties, which are administrative divisions within a country, not to be confused with the medieval system of county courts held by the high sheriff of each county.

                                               

Court of Appeal of Paris

The Court of Appeal of Paris is the largest appeals court in France in terms of the number of cases brought before it. The Court is housed in the Palais de Justice of Paris. Jacques Degrandi has been the president of the Court since 2010.

                                               

Court of Cassation (France)

The Court of Cassation is one of the four courts of last resort in France. It has jurisdiction over all civil and criminal matters triable in the judicial system, and is the supreme court of appeal in these cases. It has jurisdiction to review th ...

                                               

Demonstrative evidence

Demonstrative evidence is evidence in the form of a representation of an object. This is, as opposed to, real evidence, testimony, or other forms of evidence used at trial.

                                               

ECourt

An eCourt or Electronic Court, is a location in which matters of law are adjudicated upon, in the presence of qualified Judge or Judges, which has a well-developed technical infrastructure. This infrastructure is usually designed to allow parties ...

                                               

Elrod v. Burns

Elrod v. Burns, 427 U.S. 347, is a United States Supreme Court decision regarding political speech of public employees. The Court ruled in this case that federal employees may be active members in a political party, but cannot allow patronage to ...

                                               

Court of Justice of the European Union

The Court of Justice of the European Union is the judicial branch of the European Union. Seated in the Kirchberg quarter of Luxembourg City, Luxembourg, this EU institution consists of two separate courts: the Court of Justice and the General Cou ...

                                               

Examining magistrate

In an inquisitorial system of law, the examining magistrate, is a judge who carries out pre-trial investigations into allegations of crime and in some cases makes a recommendation for prosecution. The exact role and standing of examining magistra ...

                                               

French judiciary courts

In France the jurisdictions of the ordre judiciaire, of the French court system are empowered to try either litigation between persons or criminal law cases. They may intervene: in the matter of contention in litigation between persons in the dom ...

                                               

In open court

In open court is a legal term in the United States defined by the appearance by a party or their attorney in a public court session such as during a trial. Normally, the public may be present at trials, hearings and similar routine matters.

                                               

Inquisitorial system

An inquisitorial system is a legal system in which the court, or a part of the court, is actively involved in investigating the facts of the case. This is distinct from an adversarial system, in which the role of the court is primarily that of an ...

                                               

Judicial police

The judicial police, judiciary police, or justice police are either a branch, separate police agency or type of duty performed by law enforcement structures in a country. In civil law systems, it is common for judiciary police to be a separate po ...

                                               

Judicial restraint

Judicial restraint is a theory of judicial interpretation that encourages judges to limit the exercise of their own power. It asserts that judges should hesitate to strike down laws unless they are obviously unconstitutional, though what counts a ...

                                               

Legal practice in Uganda

In a 2012 IFLR article), Zain Latif, the principal of pioneer markets investor TLG Capital, singles out Uganda as a country where international private equity investment prospects look good, out of subsahara African countries. There are significa ...

                                               

Legal process

Legal process is any formal notice or writ by a court obtaining jurisdiction over a person or property. Common forms of process include a summons, subpoena, mandate, and warrant. Process normally takes effect by serving in on a person, arresting ...

                                               

NRL Judiciary

The NRL Judiciary is the disciplinary judiciary of the National Rugby League, a rugby league competition. The Judiciary regulates the conduct of players, referees, and other officials associated with the NRL and its clubs. The NRL Judiciary is ma ...

                                               

Per curiam decision

In law, a per curiam decision is a ruling issued by an appellate court of multiple judges in which the decision rendered is made by the court acting collectively. In contrast to regular opinions, a per curiam does not list the individual judge re ...

                                               

Petition for review

In some jurisdictions, a petition for review is a formal request for an appellate tribunal to review and make changes to the judgment of a lower court or administrative body. If a jurisdiction utilizes petitions for review, then parties seeking a ...

                                               

Procureur general

In France, the Procureur general is a magistrate who sits at the cours d’appel, at the Cour de cassation or the Cour des comptes. In the case of the appellate courts, the term refers to the magistrate who conducts the prosecution or the suit for ...

                                               

Rocket docket

A rocket docket refers to a court or other tribunal that is noted for its speedy disposition of cases and controversies that come before it, often by maintaining strict adherence to the law as pertains to filing deadlines, etc. The term was origi ...

                                               

Sanctions (law)

Sanctions, in law and legal definition, are penalties or other means of enforcement used to provide incentives for obedience with the law, or with rules and regulations. Criminal sanctions can take the form of serious punishment, such as corporal ...

                                               

Special master

In the law of the United States, a special master is generally a subordinate official appointed by a judge to make sure that judicial orders are actually followed, or in the alternative, to hear evidence on behalf of the judge and make recommenda ...

                                               

Trial court

A trial court of general jurisdiction is authorized to hear some type of civil or criminal case that is not committed exclusively to another court. In the United States, the United States district courts are the trial courts of general jurisdicti ...

                                               

Legislature

A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with th ...

                                               

Legislator

A legislator is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature. Legislators are usually politicians and are often elected by the people of the state. Legislatures may be supra-national, national, regional ...

                                               

Backbencher

In Westminster parliamentary systems, a backbencher is a member of parliament or a legislator who occupies no governmental office and is not a frontbench spokesman in the Opposition, being instead simply a member of the "rank and file". The term ...

                                               

Bill (law)

A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature. A bill does not become law until it is passed by the legislature and, in most cases, approved by the executive. Once a bill has been enacted into law, it is called an act of the ...

                                               

Board of supervisors

A board of supervisors is a governmental body that oversees the operation of county government in the American states of Arizona, California, Iowa, Mississippi, Virginia, and Wisconsin, as well as 16 counties in New York. There are equivalent age ...

                                               

Chamber of Deputies

Historically, French Chamber of Deputies was the lower house of the French Parliament during the Bourbon Restoration, the July Monarchy, and the French Third Republic; the name is still informally used for the National Assembly under the nations ...

                                               

Legislative chamber

A legislative chamber or house is a deliberative assembly within a legislature which generally meets and votes separately from the legislatures other chambers. Legislatures are usually unicameral, consisting of only one chamber, or bicameral, con ...

                                               

Citizen legislature

A citizen legislature is a legislative chamber made up primarily of citizens who have a full-time occupation besides being a legislator. Such citizen legislatures can be found on the state level, as in some U.S. states, or on the national level a ...

                                               

Committee

A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to explore them more fully than would be possible if the assembly itself were ...

                                               

Congress

A congress is a formal meeting of the representatives of different countries, constituent states, organizations, trade unions, political parties or other groups. The term originated in Late Middle English to denote an encounter during battle, fro ...

                                               

Congressional district

A congressional district is an electoral constituency that elects a single member of a congress. Countries with congressional districts include the United States, the Philippines, and Japan. A congressional district is based on population, which, ...

                                               

Council

A council is a group of people who come together to consult, deliberate, or make decisions. A council may function as a legislature, especially at a town, city or county/shire level, but most legislative bodies at the state/provincial or national ...

                                               

Debate chamber

A debate chamber is a room for people to discuss and debate. Debate chambers are used in governmental and educational bodies, such as a parliament, congress, city council, or a university, either for formal proceedings for informal discourse, suc ...

                                               

Diet (assembly)

In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly. The term is mainly used historically for the Imperial Diet, the general assembly of the Imperial Estates of the Holy Roman Empire, and for the legislative bodies of certain countries. Modern ...

                                               

Division bell

A division bell is a bell rung in or around a parliament to signal a division to members of the relevant chamber so that they may take part. They may also be used to signal the start or end of parliamentary proceedings, and often produce differen ...

                                               

Division of the assembly

In parliamentary procedure, a division of the assembly, division of the house, or simply division is a method of taking a vote that physically counts members voting. Historically, and often still today, members are literally divided into physical ...

                                               

Elective dictatorship

An "elective dictatorship" is a phrase popularised by the former Lord Chancellor of the United Kingdom, Lord Hailsham, in a Richard Dimbleby Lecture at the BBC in 1976. The phrase is found a century earlier, in describing Giuseppe Garibaldis doct ...

                                               

The Estates

The Estates, also known as the States, was the assembly of the representatives of the estates of the realm, the divisions of society in feudal times, called together for purposes of deliberation, legislation or taxation. A meeting of the estates ...

                                               

Executive communication

In the United States federal government, executive communication is a message sent to the Senate by the President or other executive branch official. An example of executive communication is a presidential veto message.

                                               

Floor (legislative)

The floor of a legislature or chamber is the place where members sit and make speeches. When a person is speaking there formally, they are said to have the floor. The House of Commons and the House of Lords of the United Kingdom; the U.S. House o ...

                                               

Frontbencher

In many parliaments and other similar assemblies, seating is typically arranged in banks or rows, with each political party or caucus grouped together. The spokespeople for each group will often sit at the front of their group, and are then known ...